Co-localized neuropeptides conopressin and ALA-PRO-GLY-TRP-NH2 have antagonistic effects on the vas deferens of lymnaea

@article{Golen1995ColocalizedNC,
  title={Co-localized neuropeptides conopressin and ALA-PRO-GLY-TRP-NH2 have antagonistic effects on the vas deferens of lymnaea
},
  author={F. A. Van Golen and K W Li and Robert J. Delange and Ronald E. van Kesteren and Roel van der Schors and Wijnand P. M. Geraerts},
  journal={Neuroscience},
  year={1995},
  volume={69},
  pages={1275-1287}
}
Localization of the neuropeptide APGWamide in gastropod molluscs by in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry.
TLDR
APGWamide immunoreactive varicose fibers innervate muscles of the male accessory sex organs in Bulinus and Aplysia confirm the hypothesis that APGWamide may be a biochemically and functionally conserved factor in the regulation of gastropod mollusc reproduction.
Transmitter identification in neurons involved in male copulation behavior in Lymnaea stagnalis
TLDR
This method has provided links between morphology, physiology, and the transmitter contents of these neurons which are involved in male copulation behavior in Lymnaea stagnalis, by combining retrograde tracing with immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization.
Functional role of peptidergic anterior lobe neurons in male sexual behavior of the snail Lymnaea stagnalis.
TLDR
The results show that the neurons of the rAL can induce an eversion of the preputium as occurs during male copulation by release of APGWamide during a period of electrical activity.
A novel neuropeptide precursor gene is expressed in the terrestrial snail central nervous system by a group of neurons that control mating behavior.
TLDR
Analysis of the expression of the preproGFAD gene shows that it is neurospecific and expressed in several groups of CNS neurons, indicating that it participates in the regulation of male mating behavior.
Vasopressin/oxytocin-related conopressin induces two separate pacemaker currents in an identified central neuron of Lymnaea stagnalis.
TLDR
The results suggest that two distinct conopressin receptors are involved in the activation of both currents, and induce or enhance a region of negative slope resistance in the steady-state current-voltage relation.
Multi‐messenger innervation of the male sexual system of Lymnaea stagnalis
TLDR
How the male sexual organs of this snail are innervated by axons from these central neurons is described and it is demonstrated that the axons of the separate muscle systems contain particular combinations of transmitters.
A vasopressin/oxytocin-related conopeptide with γ-carboxyglutamate at position 8
TLDR
NMR spectroscopy of the peptide isolated directly from the cone snails revealed that the native γ-conopressin-vil undergoes structural changes in the presence of calcium, which suggests that the peptides binds calcium, and the calcium-binding process is mediated by the ε-carboxyglutamate residue.
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References

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Characterization of a cDNA clone encoding multiple copies of the neuropeptide APGWamide in the mollusk Lymnaea stagnalis
TLDR
The isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone that encodes a multipeptide preprohormone expressed in the anterior lobe of the right cerebral ganglion, in a group of neurons that principally innervate the penial complex is described.
Distribution of the peptide Ala‐Pro‐Gly‐Trp‐NH2 (APGWamide) in the nervous system and periphery of the snail lymnaea stagnalis as revealed by immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization
TLDR
The results show that APGWamide is widely present in the central nervous system and male reproductive organs and suggest that it plays a major role in control of reproduction.
Structural and functional evolution of the vasopressin/oxytocin superfamily: vasopressin-related conopressin is the only member present in Lymnaea, and is involved in the control of sexual behavior
TLDR
It is suggested that invertebrates contain only a single member of the vasopressin/oxytocin gene family and that the amino acid change that distinguishes vasopressingin from oxytocin is functionally neutral in invertebrate species.
Evolution of the vasopressin/oxytocin superfamily: characterization of a cDNA encoding a vasopressin-related precursor, preproconopressin, from the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis.
TLDR
The data presented here demonstrate that the typical organization of the prohormones of the vasopressin/oxytocin superfamily must have been present in the common ancestors of vertebrates and invertebrates.
Processing of the FMRFamide Precursor Protein in the Snail Lymnaea stagnalis: Characterization and Neuronal Localization of a Novel Peptide, ‘SEEPLY’
TLDR
The isolation and structural characterization of a novel non‐FMRFamide‐like peptide is reported, the 22 amino acid peptide SEQPDVDDYLRDWLQSEEPLY, which detection in heart excitatory motoneurons and in nerve fibres of the heart indicated that the novel peptide may play a role, together with F MRFamide, in heart regulation in the snail.
Neuropeptides and male sexual behavior
Mutually exclusive expression of alternatively spliced FMRFamide transcripts in identified neuronal systems of the snail Lymnaea
TLDR
Mapping studies combined with dye marking of identified neurons showed the presence of the tetrapeptide exon in several behaviorally important networks: heart motoneurons, whole body withdrawal response motoneURons, and probably penis mot oneurons as well as giant identified neurons (LP1, RPD1).
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