Co-cultures of Oophila amblystomatis between Ambystoma maculatum and Ambystoma gracile hosts show host-symbiont fidelity

@article{Kerney2018CoculturesOO,
  title={Co-cultures of Oophila amblystomatis between Ambystoma maculatum and Ambystoma gracile hosts show host-symbiont fidelity},
  author={Ryan R Kerney and Jasper Leavitt and Elizabeth M. Hill and Huanjia Zhang and Eunsoo Kim and John A. Burns},
  journal={Symbiosis},
  year={2018},
  volume={78},
  pages={73-85}
}
A unique symbiosis occurs between embryos of the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) and a green alga (Oophila amblystomatis). Unlike most vertebrate host-symbiont relationships, which are ectosymbiotic, A. maculatum exhibits both an ecto- and an endo-symbiosis, where some of the green algal cells living inside egg capsules enter embryonic tissues as well as individual salamander cells. Past research has consistently categorized this symbiosis as a mutualism, making this the first example… Expand

Figures and Tables from this paper

Heterotrophic Carbon Fixation in a Salamander-Alga Symbiosis
TLDR
The results confirm earlier studies suggesting a role of heterotrophic carbon fixation during vertebrate embryonic development and show that the considerable capacity of developing A. maculatum embryos for inorganic carbon fixation precludes the ability to distinguish any minor role of photosynthetically transferred carbon from algal symbionts to host salamanders using bicarbonate introduced to the egg system as a marker. Expand
Heterotrophic Carbon Fixation in a Salamander-Alga Symbiosis
TLDR
The results confirm earlier studies suggesting a role of heterotrophic carbon fixation during vertebrate embryonic development and show that the considerable capacity of developing A. maculatum embryos for inorganic carbon fixation precludes the ability to distinguish any minor role of photosynthetically transferred carbon from algal symbionts to host salamanders using bicarbonate introduced to the egg system as a marker. Expand
The Phenology of the Symbiotic Association between Ambystoma maculatum and Unicellular Algae (Oophila) Using Molecular Techniques
TLDR
Regression via linear mixed model estimation showed a positive relationship between the age of egg masses and the probability of algal DNA detection and a negative trend when comparing egg-mass age and qPCR cycle quantification value, which indicate an increase in both the probability that a given egg will contain algalDNA and the amount ofAlgal DNA an egg contains, if present, as age increases. Expand
Diversity and substrate-specificity of green algae and other micro-eukaryotes colonizing amphibian clutches in Germany, revealed by DNA metabarcoding
TLDR
A multi-marker DNA metabarcoding study to characterize the community of algae and other micro-eukaryotes associated with agile frog (Rana dalmatina) clutches and confirmed in samples the existence of two distinct clades of green algae assigned to Oophila in past studies. Expand
Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans ELICITS ACUTE STRESS RESPONSE IN SPOTTED SALAMANDERS BUT NOT INFECTION OR MORTALITY.
TLDR
Spotted salamanders appear resistant to Bsal because they showed no indication of disease or infection, and experienced minor effects on growth upon exposure, and it is hypothesized that the early acute increase in corticosterone facilitated mounting an immune response to the pathogen. Expand
Evolution of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes; Current Opinion, Perplexity, and a New Perspective.
TLDR
It is proposed that the free-living ancestors to the plastids may have originated from a diversified lineage of cyanobacteria that were prone to symbioses, akin to some modern-day algae such as the Symbiodiniaceae dinoflagellates and Chlorella-related algae that associate with a number of unrelated host eukaryotes. Expand
Symbiotic chlamydomonads in algological department collection of BIN RAS
General information on the unialgal strains of green monads, mass-developing in symbiosis with other eukaryotic organisms from North-West Russia, is presented. The selected strains are maintained inExpand

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 71 REFERENCES
Phylogeny of the egg-loving green alga Oophila amblystomatis (Chlamydomonadales) and its response to the herbicides atrazine and 2,4-D
TLDR
The nuclear SSU rRNA gene was used to characterize two well-supported Oophila clades that include lineages identified from past studies in addition to new isolates from the current study, and recommends a revision of the current taxonomy of O. amblystomatis. Expand
Identification of free-living Oophila amblystomatis (Chlorophyceae) from Yellow Spotted Salamander and Wood Frog breeding habitat
TLDR
This study shows that pond water in which the yellow spotted salamander and the wood frog deposit egg masses contains algae that nest within the recently reported Oophila clade, supporting the hypothesis that algae from breeding habitat are a source of algae that form symbiotic associations with amphibian egg masses. Expand
Symbioses between salamander embryos and green algae
TLDR
Earlier research on this symbiosis between Ambystoma maculatum embryos and green algae is summarized and gaps in understanding are emphasized and various research avenues are suggested to address these unanswered questions. Expand
Intracellular invasion of green algae in a salamander host
TLDR
The invasion of algae into salamander host tissues and cells represents a unique association between a vertebrate and a eukaryotic alga, with implications for research into cell–cell recognition, possible exchange of metabolites or DNA, and potential congruence between host and symbiont population structures. Expand
Dynamics of the growth, life history transformation and photosynthetic capacity of Oophila amblystomatis (Chlorophyceae), a green algal symbiont associated with embryos of the northeastern yellow spotted salamander Ambystoma maculatum (Amphibia)
TLDR
It is concluded that O. amblystomatis undergoes a life history transition in egg capsules and speculate that many of these symbionts become zygotes, rather than invading the embryo. Expand
Phylogenetic Analysis of Algal Symbionts Associated with Four North American Amphibian Egg Masses
TLDR
Combined analysis shows that symbiotic algae found in egg masses of four North American amphibians are closely related to each other, and form a well-supported clade that also contains three strains of free-living chlamydomonads. Expand
Observations on the Eggs of Ambystoma Maculatum with Especial Reference to the Green Algae Found Within the Egg Envelopes
TLDR
Algae probably "helps provide oxygen for the developing embryos in the presence of light and robs them of it in darkness" as well as on the possibility of a symbiotic relationship. Expand
Optimization of culturing conditions for toxicity testing with the alga Oophila sp. (Chlorophyceae), an amphibian endosymbiont.
TLDR
Overall, the present study shows that screening for direct effects of contaminants on the algal symbiont without the presence of the host salamander is possible under certain laboratory conditions. Expand
The roles of oxygen and ammonia in the symbiotic relationship between the spotted salamander Ambystoma maculatum and the green alga Oophila amblystomatis during embryonic development
TLDR
It is suggested that oxygen and ammonia may influence A. maculatum growth and O. amblystomatis population dynamics and the extent to which algal cells penetrate internal spaces of embryos, which may be the precursor to endosymbiosis between these two species. Expand
Symbiotic green algae in eggs of Hynobius nigrescens, an amphibian endemic to Japan
TLDR
The data are consistent with the previous report on North American amphibian eggs and support the specific symbiotic relationships between Oophila‐clade symbionts and the eggs of amphibians and discuss several possibilities regarding the origin of green Symbionts (vertical transmission or invasion) on the basis of the discovery and detailed observation of H. nigrescens eggs without any green symbiont. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...