Co-Ossification of Vertebrae in Mosasaurs (Squamata, Mosasauridae); Evidence of Habitat Interactions and Susceptibility to Bone Disease

@inproceedings{Rothschild2015CoOssificationOV,
  title={Co-Ossification of Vertebrae in Mosasaurs (Squamata, Mosasauridae); Evidence of Habitat Interactions and Susceptibility to Bone Disease},
  author={Bruce M. Rothschild and Michael J. Everhart},
  year={2015}
}
Pathologies involving the fusion of mosasaur vertebrae have been documented in the literature since the late 1870s. Although some instances can clearly be demonstrated to be the result of an attack by another predator, usually a shark, the source of the pathology is more difficult to discern in other specimens. Here we discuss the evidence for pathologies as the result of interactions with the mosasaur's habitat and the apparent susceptibility of certain kinds of disease affecting the skeleton… 

Pathology in a Permian parareptile: congenital malformation of sacral vertebrae

TLDR
The anatomy described here sheds light on pareiasaurian sacral morphology and provides insight into the pathology in one of the earliest clades of large-bodied reptiles near the base of the amniote tree.

Spondyloarthropathy in vertebrae of the aquatic Cretaceous snake Lunaophis aquaticus, and its first recognition in modern snakes

TLDR
Ossification of the intervertebral capsule and zygapophyseal joints resulting in segmental vertebral fusion was observed in the aquatic Cretaceous snake Lunaophis aquaticus, documented for the first time in snakes.

Pathological survey on Temnodontosaurus from the Early Jurassic of southern Germany

TLDR
According to the analysis, most observed pathologies in Temnodontosaurus are force-induced traumas with signs of healing, possibly inflicted during aggressive interactions with conspecifics.

Transcending human spondyloarthritis: Implications of the ecologic record from the Permian to the present

TLDR
Spondyloarthropathy is recognized as far back as the Permian, increased in prevalence over geologic and modern time and is now essentially trans-mammalian in distribution, and its current occurrence is independent of captive or free-ranging status.

Palaeoepidemiology in extinct vertebrate populations: factors influencing skeletal health in Jurassic marine reptiles

TLDR
The results show that the incidence of pathologies is dependent on taxon, with the small-bodied genus Stenopterygius exhibiting fewer skeletal pathologies than other genera, and the quantification of the occurrence of pathology within taxa and across guilds is critical to constructing more detailed hypotheses regarding changes in the prevalence of skeletal injury and disease through Earth history.

Congenital and late onset vertebral fusions in long necked plesiosaurs: The first report of spondylosis deformans in Sauropterygians

TLDR
This is the first report of spondylosis deformans in the Plesiosauria, and the significance of spinal fusions as causes of neck stiffness in long-necked plesiosaurs is discussed and their debilitating potential considered.

Morphometric analyses of the vertebrae of Ambystoma (Tschudi, 1838) and the implications for identification of fossil salamanders

Ambystoma (Tschudi, 1838) represents a speciose clade of salamanders that are found across much of North America. Fossils referred to Ambystoma are reported from early Cenozoic deposits and are

Ichthyosaurian palaeopathology: evidence of injury and disease in fossil ‘fish lizards’

The documented record of ichthyosaurian paleopathologies reveals an array of injury-related bone modifications and instances of disease evidenced through multiple clades, skeletal regions and body-

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 25 REFERENCES

Avascular Necrosis: Occurrence in Diving Cretaceous Mosasaurs

TLDR
A study of vertebrae of extinct giant marine lizards showed the presence of avascular necrosis in two of the three most common genera of these mosasaurs, Platecarpus and Tylosaurus, but absent in a third genus Clidastes.

Co-ossified vertebrae of mosasaurs and cetaceans: implications for the mode of locomotion of extinct marine reptiles

TLDR
Co-ossified pygal and caudal vertebrae in Late Cretaceous mosasaurs from the southeast Netherlands, northeast Belgium, and North America are compared with lumbar and cauding whales to show the location of idiopathic hyperostosis along the vertebral column implicates axial locomotion in mosasaur, as in whales.

Palaeopathology and injury in the extinct mosasaurs (Lepidosauromorpha, Squamata) and implications for modern reptiles

Three fossilized dentaries provide an insight into the healing of fractures in a major group of extinct marine predators, mosasaurs. The data has implications for modern day reptiles in which such

A bitten skull of Tylosaurus kansasensis (Squamata: Mosasauridae) and a review of mosasaur-on-mosasaur pathology in the fossil record

TLDR
Deep and unhealed bite marks on the skull, as well as a possible broken neck, suggest that this individual died from injuries received when its skull was bitten and possibly crushed by another mosasaur.

A fishy mosasaur: the axial skeleton of Plotosaurus (Reptilia, Squamata) reassessed

TLDR
Analysis of vertebral centrum morphometrics and process orientation has revealed that a subsequent clade of secondarily aquatic reptiles, the mosasaurs, had developed a deep, fusiform body and a probable pursuit-predatory behaviour by the time of their sudden extinction at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary.

Macroscopic Recognition of Nontraumatic Osseous Pathology in the Postcranial Skeletons of Crocodilians and Lizards

Abstract Identification of postcranial reptile pathology unrelated to trauma on the basis of macroscopic (visual) examination is feasible and effective, as previously documented in mammals, birds,

Mosasaur ascending: the phytogeny of bends

Abstract Recognition of decompression syndrome-related pathology (in the form of avascular necrosis) reveals diving behaviour in mosasaurs. Macroscopic and radiologic examination was performed to

Late Cretaceous interaction between predators and prey. Evidence of feeding by two species of shark on a mosasaur.

The fragmentary remains of a mosasaur discovered in the Smoky Hill Chalk Member (Late Coniacian) of the Niobrara Chalk of Gove County, Kansas, U.S.A., preserve a number of injuries consistent with

Scientifically rigorous reptile and amphibian osseous pathology: Lessons for forensic herpetology from comparative and paleo-pathology

TLDR
Scientific approach, validated database and phylogeny-independent pathology recognition form the basis for this review of the current knowledge of contemporary and extinct amphibian and reptile osseous pathology and provides baseline data for forensic herpetologists and others attempting to identify and interpret osseOUS lesions, disease and trauma in a forensic context.

Shark-bitten dinosaur (Hadrosauridae) caudal vertebrae from the Niobrara Chalk (Upper Coniacian) of western Kansas

Abstract The Niobrara Chalk in western Kansas was deposited on the eastern shelf of the Late Cretaceous Western Interior Sea during Coniacian through early Campanian time, hundreds of miles from the