Clustered versus catastrophic global vertebrate declines.

  title={Clustered versus catastrophic global vertebrate declines.},
  author={Brian Leung and Anna L. Hargreaves and Dan A. Greenberg and Brian J. McGill and Maria A. Dornelas and Robin Freeman},
Recent analyses have reported catastrophic global declines in vertebrate populations1,2. However, the distillation of many trends into a global mean index obscures the variation that can inform conservation measures and can be sensitive to analytical decisions. For example, previous analyses have estimated a mean vertebrate decline of more than 50% since 1970 (Living Planet Index2). Here we show, however, that this estimate is driven by less than 3% of vertebrate populations; if these extremely… 

Insect decline in the Anthropocene: Death by a thousand cuts

The entomological community was in need of a thorough review and the annual meeting provided a timely opportunity for sharing information, and the goal of the symposium was to assemble world experts on insect biodiversity and conservation and ask them to report on the state of knowledge of insect population trends.

Random population fluctuations bias the Living Planet Index.

It is shown how random fluctuations lead to a declining LPI even when overall population trends are stable and imprecise estimates of the LPI when populations increase or decrease nonlinearly.

Abundance decline in the avifauna of the European Union reveals cross‐continental similarities in biodiversity change

This work finds significant biodiversity loss in the native avifauna of the European Union (EU) and estimates a decline of 17–19% in the overall breeding bird abundance since 1980: a loss of 560–620 million individual birds.

Life history predicts global population responses to the weather in terrestrial mammals

Overall, there was no consistent effect of temperature or precipitation anomalies on annual population growth rates, but there was variability in weather responses for populations within a species, and long-lived mammals with smaller litter sizes had responses with a reduced absolute magnitude compared to their shorter-living counterparts with larger litters.

Controversy over the decline of arthropods: a matter of temporal baseline?

Recently, a number of studies have reported somewhat contradictory patterns of temporal trends in arthropod abundance, from decline to increase. Arthropods often exhibit non-monotonous variation in

Global patterns of resilience decline in vertebrate populations.

It is shown that the number of threats to which a population is exposed is the main driver of resilience decline in vertebrate populations, highlighting the need to account for the multiple components of resilience in global biodiversity assessments.

Socioeconomics drive population change in the world’s largest carnivores

A comprehensive array of potential drivers of population changes observed in some of the world’s most charismatic species – large mammalian carnivores are evaluated, revealing a strong role of human socioeconomic development.

Assessing the representation of species included within the Canadian Living Planet Index

To effectively combat the biodiversity crisis, we need ambitious targets and reliable indicators to accurately track trends and measure conservation impact. In Canada, the Living Planet Index (LPI)

The Sixth Mass Extinction: fact, fiction or speculation?

Differences in extinction rates are reviewed according to realms: marine species face significant threats but, although previous mass extinctions were largely defined by marine invertebrates, there is no evidence that the marine biota has reached the same crisis as the non-marine biota, and island species have suffered far greater rates than continental ones.



Decline of the North American avifauna

Using multiple and independent monitoring networks, population losses across much of the North American avifauna over 48 years are reported, including once-common species and from most biomes, demonstrating a continuing avifaunal crisis.

All is not decline across global vertebrate populations

The populations of Earth’s species are changing over time in complex ways, creating a mixture of winners and losers in a time of accelerating global change. A critical research challenge is to test

Trends in mean growth and stability in temperate vertebrate populations

Mean trends for amphibians suggested a systematic decline, whereas birds, reptiles and mammals were increasing, on average, and freshwater fishes showed no net change in general, which suggests populations are generally becoming more unstable, even in temperate, developed nations, with arguably the strongest environmental regulations.

Monitoring Change in Vertebrate Abundance: the Living Planet Index

Abstract:  The task of measuring the decline of global biodiversity and instituting changes to halt and reverse this downturn has been taken up in response to the Convention on Biological Diversity's

A balance of winners and losers in the Anthropocene.

For a set of 23 241 populations, 16 009 species, in 158 assemblages, significantly accelerating extinction and colonisation rates were detected, with both rates being approximately balanced.

The Diversity-Weighted Living Planet Index: Controlling for Taxonomic Bias in a Global Biodiversity Indicator

This report reports on an approach to tackle taxonomic and geographic bias in one such indicator (Living Planet Index) by accounting for the estimated number of species within biogeographical realms, and the relative diversity of species inside them, and estimates a global population decline in vertebrate species between 1970 and 2012.

Biological annihilation via the ongoing sixth mass extinction signaled by vertebrate population losses and declines

The population extinction pulse shows, from a quantitative viewpoint, that Earth’s sixth mass extinction is more severe than perceived when looking exclusively at species extinctions and humanity needs to address anthropogenic population extirpation and decimation immediately.

Hotspots of human impact on threatened terrestrial vertebrates

It is shown that impacts to species are widespread, occurring across 84% of Earth’s surface, and hotspots of impacted species richness and coolspots of unimpacted species richness are identified, providing essential information for future national and global conservation agendas.

The geography of biodiversity change in marine and terrestrial assemblages

Examining spatial variation in species richness and composition change using more than 50,000 biodiversity time series from 239 studies found clear geographic variation in biodiversity change, suggesting that biodiversity change may be spatially structured.