Club drugs: methylenedioxymethamphetamine, flunitrazepam, ketamine hydrochloride, and gamma-hydroxybutyrate.

  title={Club drugs: methylenedioxymethamphetamine, flunitrazepam, ketamine hydrochloride, and gamma-hydroxybutyrate.},
  author={Kelly M. Smith and Lisa L Larive and Frank Romanelli},
  journal={American journal of health-system pharmacy : AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists},
  volume={59 11},
  • Kelly M. Smith, L. L. Larive, F. Romanelli
  • Published 1 June 2002
  • Psychology
  • American journal of health-system pharmacy : AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists
The abuse of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), flunitrazepam, ketamine hydrochloride, and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is discussed. Club drugs are chemical substances used recreationally in social settings. Use is increasingly frequent among young people, especially during all-night dance parties. All four agents have been classified as controlled substances. MDMA ("ecstasy") is available as a tablet, a capsule, and a powder; formulations may contain many adulterants. MDMA increases the… 

Club drugs: MDMA, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), Rohypnol, and ketamine.

Club drugs are substances commonly used at nightclubs, music festivals, raves, and dance parties to enhance social intimacy and sensory stimulation, and there are no specific antidotes except for flunitrazepam, a benzodiazepine that responds to flumazenil.

[Club drugs].

The purpose of this article is creating in Portuguese language a knowledge data base on club drugs, that health professionals of various specialties can use as a reference when dealing with individual with this kind of drug abuse.

MDMA and Other “Club Drugs”

The use of the club drugs 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “ecstasy”), gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), ketamine and LSD is a popular practice among young people

The γ-Hydroxybutyrate Withdrawal Syndrome

Although many GHB users will experience a mild withdrawal syndrome upon drug discontinuation, those with chronic heavy GHB use can experience severe withdrawal, and patients with fulminant GHB withdrawal require aggressive treatment with cross-tolerant sedative hypnotics, such as benzodiazepines.

A New Psychoactive Substance, Gamma Hydroxybutyrate (GHB): A Case Report.

  • H. Bulut
  • Psychology
    Noro psikiyatri arsivi
  • 2019
In order to prevent the use of GHB, it would be appropriate to develop psycho-education methodologies, establish legislative regulations, and include GHB tests in substance screening analyses.

An abuse liability comparison of flunitrazepam and triazolam in sedative drug abusers

It is suggested that flunitrazepam may have a greater abuse liability than triazolam, and that this abuse liability difference emerges on measures taken 24 h after drug administration but not on same-day measures.

Rhabdomyolysis after ingestion of "foxy," a hallucinogenic tryptamine derivative.

It is reported that ingestion of foxy by a healthy 23-year-old man that resulted in rhabdomyolysis and transient acute renal failure.

Anesthetic implications of acute methylenedioxymethamphetamine intoxication in a patient with traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage.

A case report of traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage in a patient with acute MDMA intoxication and a review of the anesthetic implications are presented.



MDMA (ecstasy) and the rave: a review.

MDMA is a “designer” drug that is becoming popular with American adolescents at dance halls known as “raves” and on college campuses, and an analogue of amphetamine, which shares properties with both amphetamine and hallucinogenic drugs.

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy"): pharmacology and toxicology in animals and humans.

Improved recognition of MDMA-related syndromes is hoped to provide insight into the function of serotonin in the human brain, in health as well as disease.

Subanesthetic effects of the noncompetitive NMDA antagonist, ketamine, in humans. Psychotomimetic, perceptual, cognitive, and neuroendocrine responses.

These data indicate that N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists produce a broad range of symptoms, behaviors, and cognitive deficits that resemble aspects of endogenous psychoses, particularly schizophrenia and dissociative states.

Acute poisoning from gamma-hydroxybutyrate in California.

GHB is a putative neurotransmitter marketed as a growth hormone releaser for bodybuilders and, despite being banned by the US Food and Drug Administration, GHB is still widely available in the underground drug market.

Cerebral oedema after ingestion of MDMA (“ecstasy”) and unrestricted intake of water

Two patients who developed clinical effects due to the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone after ingestion of MDMA are reported on.

Drugs used in acquaintance rape.

  • K. M. Smith
  • Medicine
    Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association
  • 1999