Clostridium difficile infection: new developments in epidemiology and pathogenesis

  title={Clostridium difficile infection: new developments in epidemiology and pathogenesis},
  author={Maja Rupnik and Mark H. Wilcox and Dale N Gerding},
  journal={Nature Reviews Microbiology},
Clostridium difficile is now considered to be one of the most important causes of health care-associated infections. C. difficile infections are also emerging in the community and in animals used for food, and are no longer viewed simply as unpleasant complications that follow antibiotic therapy. Since 2001, the prevalence and severity of C. difficile infection has increased significantly, which has led to increased research interest and the discovery of new virulence factors, and has expanded… 

Clostridium difficile Infection: A Comprehensive Review

This review summarizes the pathogenesis and changing epidemiology of C. difficile associated disease, the clinical spectrum and laboratory methods to diagnose C. Difficile infection, and current treatment strategies.

Clostridium difficile infection: New insights into therapeutic options

An overview of currently available CDI treatment options is provided and the most promising therapies under development are discussed, which could help to better control outbreaks and treat patients.

Clostridium difficile Infection

This chapter highlights the current knowledge on C difficile virulence, human disease, epidemic outbreaks and optimal treatment strategies.

Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection: current and alternative therapeutic strategies.

The purpose of this review is to present a description of issues associated to C. difficile infection, a summary of current therapies and those in developmental stage, and a discussion of potential combinations that may lead to an increased efficacy of C. diffuse infection treatment.

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Clostridium difficile recurrent infection: possible implication of TA systems.

This review will focus on advances of toxin-antitoxin systems in C. difficile and their putative roles and suggest that novel mechanisms linked with pathogenesis and persistence of C. Difficile might significantly contribute to biofilm formation and persistent infection.

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Infection control practices include the early diagnosis of C. difficile infection, surveillance, appropriate use of isolation precautions, staff training, hand hygiene, environmental cleaning, good antibiotic stewardship and specific measures during outbreaks.



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  • Biology, Medicine
    Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
  • 2007
Reports have shown a marked overlap between isolates from calves and humans, including two of the predominant outbreak types, 027 and 017, suggesting that food could be involved in the transmission of C. difficile from animals to humans.

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  • Medicine, Biology
    Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
  • 2006
The clinical spectrum of Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) ranges from diarrhoea to severe life-threatening pseudomembranous colitis, and is recognised increasingly in a variety of animal species and in individuals previously not considered to be predisposed.

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    Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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The construction of isogenic tcdA and tcdB mutants of a virulent C. difficile strain are described and their use in the hamster disease model is used to show that toxin B is a key virulence determinant.

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Clostridium difficile-associated disease is most commonly diagnosed in Syrian hamsters, horses, and neonatal pigs, but it is reported sporadically in many other species.

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A previously uncommon strain of C. difficile with variations in toxin genes has become more resistant to fluoroquinolones and has emerged as a cause of geographically dispersed outbreaks of C.'s Difficile-associated disease.