Close membrane-membrane proximity induced by Ca(2+)-dependent multivalent binding of synaptotagmin-1 to phospholipids.

Abstract

Synaptotagmin acts as a Ca(2+) sensor in neurotransmitter release through its two C(2) domains. Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipid binding is key for synaptotagmin function, but it is unclear how this activity cooperates with the SNARE complex involved in release or why Ca(2+) binding to the C(2)B domain is more crucial for release than Ca(2+) binding to the C(2)A domain. Here we show that Ca(2+) induces high-affinity simultaneous binding of synaptotagmin to two membranes, bringing them into close proximity. The synaptotagmin C(2)B domain is sufficient for this ability, which arises from the abundance of basic residues around its surface. We propose a model wherein synaptotagmin cooperates with the SNAREs in bringing the synaptic vesicle and plasma membranes together and accelerates membrane fusion through the highly positive electrostatic potential of its C(2)B domain.

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@article{Ara2006CloseMP, title={Close membrane-membrane proximity induced by Ca(2+)-dependent multivalent binding of synaptotagmin-1 to phospholipids.}, author={Demet Araç and Xiaocheng Chen and Htet A. Khant and Josep Ubach and Steven J. Ludtke and Masahide Kikkawa and Arthur E. Johnson and Wah Chiu and Thomas Christian S{\"{u}dhof and Josep Rizo}, journal={Nature structural & molecular biology}, year={2006}, volume={13 3}, pages={209-17} }