Close link between protoporphyrin IX accumulation and developmental toxicity induced by N-phenylimide herbicides in rats.

@article{Kawamura2014CloseLB,
  title={Close link between protoporphyrin IX accumulation and developmental toxicity induced by N-phenylimide herbicides in rats.},
  author={S. Kawamura and Terushige Kato and A. Fantel},
  journal={Birth defects research. Part B, Developmental and reproductive toxicology},
  year={2014},
  volume={101 6},
  pages={
          429-37
        }
}
BACKGROUND S-53482, 7-fluoro-6-[(3,4,5,6-tetrahydro)phthalimido]-4-(2-propynyl)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(2H)-one (flumioxazin), is an N-phenylimide herbicide and developmentally toxic to rats, but not to rabbits. The day of greatest sensitivity to S-53482 is gestational day (GD) 12 in rats. There is a compound-specific difference in developmental toxicity among structurally similar compounds including S-23121 (N-[4-chloro-2-fluoro-5-[(1-methyl-2-propynyl)oxy]phenyl]-3,4,5,6-tetrahydrophthalimide… Expand
Different Effects of an N-Phenylimide Herbicide on Heme Biosynthesis between Human and Rat Erythroid Cells.
TLDR
It is suggested that the rat would be an inappropriate model for assessing the developmental toxicity of S-53482 in humans as rats are specifically sensitive to PPO inhibition by the herbicide. Expand
Flumioxazin metabolism in pregnant animals and cell‐based protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase (PPO) inhibition assay of fetal metabolites in various animal species to elucidate the mechanism of the rat‐specific developmental toxicity
TLDR
The species difference in the developmental toxicity was concluded to be due to the difference in sensitivity of PPO to flumioxazin, and rats were confirmed to be the most sensitive of these species. Expand
Mechanism of Developmental Effects in Rats Caused by an N-Phenylimide Herbicide: Transient Fetal Anemia and Sequelae during Mid-to-Late Gestation.
TLDR
Developmental toxicity results from PPO inhibition in primitive erythroblasts, causing transient fetal anemia followed by death, and inhibition of PPO in rats, rabbits, and humans by the herbicides in vitro is proposed. Expand
Species-specific developmental toxicity in rats and rabbits: Generation of a reference compound list for development of alternative testing approaches.
TLDR
A retrospective data analysis was conducted to identify compounds for which species sensitivity differences between rats and rabbits are not caused by maternal toxicity or toxicokinetic differences, and could be useful to identify mechanisms leading to species differences. Expand

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