Close Binary Companions to APOGEE DR16 Stars: 20,000 Binary-star Systems Across the Color–Magnitude Diagram

  title={Close Binary Companions to APOGEE DR16 Stars: 20,000 Binary-star Systems Across the Color–Magnitude Diagram},
  author={Adrian. M. Price-Whelan and David W. Hogg and Hans-Walter Rix and Rachael L. Beaton and Hannah M. Lewis and David L. Nidever and Andr'es Almeida and Carles Badenes and Rodolfo Barba and Timothy C. Beers and Joleen K. Carlberg and Nathan De Lee and Jos{\'e} G. Fern{\'a}ndez-Trincado and Peter M. Frinchaboy and Domingo An'ibal Garc'ia-Hern'andez and Paul J. Green and Sten Hasselquist and Pen{\'e}lope Longa-Pe{\~n}a and Steven R. Majewski and Christian Nitschelm and Jennifer S. Sobeck and Keivan G. Stassun and Guy S. Stringfellow and Nicholas W. Troup},
  journal={arXiv: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics},
Many problems in contemporary astrophysics---from understanding the formation of black holes to untangling the chemical evolution of galaxies---rely on knowledge about binary stars. This, in turn, depends on discovery and characterization of binary companions for large numbers of different kinds of stars in different chemical and dynamical environments. Current stellar spectroscopic surveys observe hundreds of thousands to millions of stars with (typically) few observational epochs, which… 
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