Cloning Adult Farm Animals: A Review of the Possibilities and Problems Associated with Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

  title={Cloning Adult Farm Animals: A Review of the Possibilities and Problems Associated with Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer},
  author={J Lannett Edwards and F Neal Schrick and Malcolm D. Mccracken and Sarel R. van Amstel and Fred M. Hopkins and M. G. Welborn and Christopher J Davies},
  journal={American Journal of Reproductive Immunology},
In 1997, Wilmut et al. announced the birth of Dolly, the first ever clone of an adult animal. To date, adult sheep, goats, cattle, mice, pigs, cats and rabbits have been cloned using somatic cell nuclear transfer. The ultimate challenge of cloning procedures is to reprogram the somatic cell nucleus for development of the early embryo. The cell type of choice for reprogramming the somatic nucleus is an enucleated oocyte. Given that somatic cells are easily obtained from adult animals, cultured… 

Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer and the Creation of Transgenic Large Animal Models

Demand for large transgenic animal models is increasing as a result of their numerous possible applications including the development of higher quality production animals, creation of stem cells for tissue repair (therapeutic cloning), production of protein-based pharmaceuticals (animal pharming), creation of organ donors for xenotransplantation and the creation of large animal models for biomedical research.

Present status of equine cloning and clinical characterization of embryonic, fetal, and neonatal development of three cloned mules.

The ability to clone mammals via somatic cell nuclear transfer offers tremendous potential for application in the areas of animal agriculture, conservation biology through the preservation of endangered species, and medical biotechnology.

Review on Applications of Genetic Engineering And Cloning in Farm animals

Through the biotechnology of gene therapy, scientists are making efforts at curing genetic diseases by attempting to replace defective genes with the correct version and also used to produce more effective and efficient vaccines, therapeutic antibodies, antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals.

Abnormalities in bovine conceptus development during the embryonic phase after In Vitro Fertilization ( IVF ) and cloning by nuclear transfer ( NT )

Many technological innovations could help to obtain a better quality production and significant improvements in animal breeding such as those brought about by nuclear transfer and in vitro fertilization.

Genetically modified pigs for biomedical research

This review summarizes the key technologies used for generating GM pigs, including pronuclear microinjection, sperm-mediated gene transfer, somatic cell nuclear transfer by traditional cloning, and somaticcell nuclear transferBy handmade cloning.

Using cell banks as a tool in conservation programmes of native domestic breeds: the production of the first cloned Anatolian Grey cattle.

The birth of healthy clones suggests that the haplotype difference between the cell and oocyte donor did not affect the pre- or post-implantation development of the bovine nuclear transfer derived embryos in the study.


The results indicated that adult and fetal Nellore fibroblasts could be used successfully as nuclei donor, with similar rates of in vitro and in vivo development.

Developmental aberrations of liver gene expression in bovine fetuses derived from somatic cell nuclear transplantation.

It is demonstrated that widespread dysregulation of liver genes occurs in the developing liver of NT bovine fetuses, suggesting that inappropriate genomic reprogramming after NT is a key factor associated with abnormal gene expressions in the livers of NT fetuses.

Animal Cloning Drawbacks An-Overview

The problems, due to which cloning is considered as an inefficient technique are focused, and more work need to understand exact cause of failure during pre- and postnatal development of cloned animals.



Cloned pigs produced by nuclear transfer from adult somatic cells

The successful production of cloned piglets from a cultured adult somatic cell population using a new nuclear transfer procedure is reported and the methodology used for embryo reconstruction in each of these species is essentially similar.

Production of gene-targeted sheep by nuclear transfer from cultured somatic cells

Efficient and reproducible gene targeting in fetal fibroblasts to place a therapeutic transgene at the ovine α1(I) procollagen (COL1A1) locus is described and the production of live sheep by nuclear transfer is described.

Six cloned calves produced from adult fibroblast cells after long-term culture.

Birth of six clones of an aged (17-year-old) Japanese Black Beef bull using ear skin fibroblast cells as nuclear donor cells after up to 3 months of in vitro culture shows that fibroblasts of aged animals remain competent for cloning, and prolonged culture does not affect the cloning competence of adult somatic donor cells.

Cloned transgenic calves produced from nonquiescent fetal fibroblasts.

The life-span of near senescent fibroblasts could be extended by nuclear transfer, as indicated by population doublings in fibroblast lines derived from a 40-day-old fetal clone.

Nuclear transplantation in sheep embryos

It is shown that fully viable embryos may be obtained by this procedure and its use to investigate the development of embryos in which whole blastomeres from 8- and 16-cell embryos were combined with enucleated or nucleated halves of unfertilized eggs.

Production of Cloned Cattle from In Vitro Systems

In general, cultured fetal cells performed better with respect to pregnancy initiation and calving than adult cells with the exception of cumulous cells, which produced the highest overall pregnancy and Calving rates.

Cloned rabbits produced by nuclear transfer from adult somatic cells

It is indicated that cloning can probably be carried out successfully in any mammalian species by taking into account physiological features of their oocytes and embryos.

Production of embryos by oocyte cytoplast-blastomere fusion in domestic animals.

Embryos of amphibians, sheep, cattle, pigs and rabbits have been multiplied by nuclear transfer. Successful nuclear transfer in these species has been accomplished by transfer of a blastomere from a

Ontogeny of Cloned Cattle to Lactation

The data represent the most comprehensive information on cattle derived from nuclear transfer procedures and indicate that this emerging reproductive technology offers unique opportunities to meet critical needs in both human health care and agriculture.