Clock genes, feedback loops and their possible role in the etiology of bipolar disorders: an integrative model.


Clock genes, which are found in all higher organisms including humans, play a central role in the generation and control of circadian rhythms. For example, the amount of protein encoded by the per gene in mice oscillates with a circadian frequency. The per gene is activated by a constitutively expressed heterodimeric protein encoded by the bmal1 and clock… (More)


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