BACKGROUND Cholesterol deficiency (CD), a newly identified autosomal recessive genetic defect in Holstein cattle, is associated with clinical signs of diarrhea, failure to thrive, and hypocholesterolemia. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES The objective is to describe the clinicopathological phenotype of affected Holstein cattle homozygous for the causative apolipoprotein B gene (APOB) mutation. ANIMALS Six Holstein cattle, 5 calves with a clinical history of chronic diarrhea, and 1 heifer with erosions in the buccal cavity and neurologic symptoms were admitted to the Clinic for Ruminants. METHODS This case review included a full clinical examination, a complete blood count, blood chemistry, and measurements of cholesterol and triglycerides. The animals were euthanized and necropsied. A PCR-based direct gene test was applied to determine the APOB genotype. RESULTS All 6 animals were inbred, could be traced back to the sire Maughlin Storm, and were confirmed homozygous for the APOB mutation. The clinical phenotype included poor development, underweight, and intermittent diarrhea in the calves, and neurologic signs in the heifer included hypermetria and pacing. Hypocholesterolemia and low triglycerides concentrations were present in all animals. The pathological phenotype of all animals was steatorrhea with enterocytes of the small intestine containing intracytoplasmic lipid vacuoles. The peripheral nervous system of the heifer displayed degenerative changes. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE Suspicion of CD in Holstein cattle is based on the presence of chronic diarrhea with no evidence of primary infections. Confirmation of the associated APOB gene mutation is needed. Additionally, the heifer demonstrated primarily signs of neurologic disease providing an unexpected phenotype of CD.