Clinicopathologic effects of cryotherapy on hepatic vessels and bile ducts in a porcine model


Background: The proximity of a hepatic tumor to major vessels and bile ducts limits the use of cryotherapy because of the potential damage to these structures. However, the effects of cryotherapy on major hepatic vessels and bile ducts are not well understood. Methods: Nine pigs underwent laparotomy and intraoperative ultrasound to identify hepatic vessels… (More)
DOI: 10.1007/BF02303482


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