Identification and characterization of college students with Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome in China
OBJECTIVE To investigate the significance of extra-nodal spread in special histological sub-types of breast cancer and the relationship of such spread with prognostic parameters. METHODS A total of 303 breast cancer cases were classified according to tumor type, and each tumor group was subdivided according to age, tumor diameter, lymph node metastasis, extra-nodal spread, vein invasion in the adjacent soft tissue, distant metastasis, and immunohistochemical characteristics [estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) existence, p53, c-erbB-2, and proliferative rate (Ki-67)]. The 122 cases with extra-nodal spread were clinically followed up. RESULTS An extra-nodal spread was observed in 40% (122 cases) of the 303 breast cancer cases. The spread most frequently presented in micro papillary carcinoma histological sub-type (40 cases, 75%), but least frequently presents in mucinous carcinoma (2 cases, 8%). Patients with extra-nodal spread had a high average number of metastatic lymph nodes (8.3) and a high distant metastasis rate (38 cases, 31%) compared with patients without extra-nodal spread. CONCLUSION The existence of extra-nodal spread in the examined breast cancer sub-types has predictive value in forecasting the number of metastatic lymph nodes and the disease prognosis.