A clinical, neurological and electroencephalographic investigation was undertaken in 29 previously cytogenetically verified hemizygous males with the fra(X) form of mental retardation (age range 3.5 to 59 years); in addition, 6 heterozygous females were examined. All male patients displayed the known physical aspects of this syndrome together with associated abnormalities of the palate, skeleton, connective tissue and endocrine system. The most prominent neurological features were different forms of oculomotor disturbances, minor motor and pyramidal signs, incoordination, muscle hypotonia, gait and speech abnormalities. There was no increased frequency either in seizures or in epileptic EEG discharges. Some patients had a slowing of background activity in EEG. About 50% of all patients displayed autistic-like behaviour, short attention span and/or hyperactivity. In accordance with the literature, the findings indicate that there are no neurological, electroencephalographic or neuroradiological features which occur specifically in this syndrome. The need to differentiate the findings from those resulting from encephalopathic mechanisms during the gestational and perinatal period is stressed. A distinct typing of seizures and EEG changes is needed in each patient, before definite conclusions about an association of seizures and fra(X) syndrome are drawn. In view of the lack of correlation between IQ and the clinical-neurological measures, a more practical approach to quantifying the mental impairment is proposed.