Clinically relevant landmarks of the frontotemporal branch of the facial nerve: a three-dimensional study.

Abstract

The frontotemporal branch of the facial nerve (FTN) is vulnerable during craniofacial surgeries due to its superficial course and variable distribution. Surface landmarks that correlate with the underlying course of the FTN can assist in surgical planning. Estimates of the course of FTN commonly rely on Pitanguy's line (PL), which utilizes variable soft… (More)
DOI: 10.1002/ca.22162

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