The MR scans were retrospectively reviewed of 40 patients who had been diagnosed as having syringomyelia. Our results demonstrate that syringomyelia can be found in asymptomatic patients as well as in many with atypical symptomatology. Our study stresses MR efficacy in investigating this pathologic condition. As a matter of fact, MR allowed us to visualize the cavity, its extension, the eventual association with Arnold Chiari type-I malformation and/or syringobulbia. In all cases cord enlargement and the presence of septations could also be demonstrated. In most cases the possible pathogenesis of syringomyelia could also be supposed.