A total of 1478 patients with lung cancer were operated upon at the Shanghai Chest Hospital from 1958 to 1973. The resectability was 88.6%. Up to May 1989, 128 patients with a super-long-term survival, from 15 to 31 years (md = 18.8 years) after resection, had complete data for analysis. Seventy one (55.5%) patients are still alive. The 15-year survival rate was 8.7%. After 15 years of postoperative survival, only the death rate of smoking group (BI = 538) was significantly higher than that of non-smoking group in eleven statistic items (chi 2 = 4.45, P < 0.05). This suggests that smoking exerts a negative influence on super-long-term survival by reducing the immune function and inducing senile chronic pulmonary-cardiovascular diseases in the host. The importance of radical resection and healthy psychological status of the host for super-long-term survival is discussed.