Clinical spectrum of levodopa‐induced complications

  title={Clinical spectrum of levodopa‐induced complications},
  author={Camila Catherine Aquino and Susan H. Fox},
  journal={Movement Disorders},
  • C. Aquino, S. Fox
  • Published 1 January 2015
  • Psychology, Medicine, Biology
  • Movement Disorders
The first years of Parkinson disease (PD) treatment are marked by good and sustained responses to dopaminergic therapy. With disease progression and longer exposure to levodopa (l‐dopa), patients develop a range of l‐dopa–induced complications that include motor and non‐motor symptoms. Motor complications include motor fluctuations, characterized by periods of reduced benefit from the medication, and l‐dopa–induced dyskinesia, characterized by emergence of hyperkinetic involuntary movements… 
Pharmacological Insights into Levodopa‐induced Motor Fluctuations in Patients with Parkinson's Disease
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  • 2016
2 reviews provide a global picture of the clinical spectrum of L-dopa–induced complications and of the major trials that have been conducted in this field since 2013; and the reader will also find a compilation of original approaches and focused studies exploring the same topic.
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Major issues related to NMF are summarized including clinical phenomenology and pathophysiology, and a number of open issues and topics for future research are outlined.
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  • P. Jenner
  • Psychology, Biology
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Motor fluctuations and dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease: Clinical manifestations
  • J. Jankovic
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society
  • 2005
The most common type of dyskinesia, called “peak‐dose dyskinese”, usually consists of stereotypical choreic or ballistic movements involving the head, trunk, and limbs, and occasionally, the respiratory muscles, whereas tremor and punding are less‐common complications.
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Two patients with PD in whom the introduction or augmentation of L‐dopa therapy was associated with the development of irregular and rapid breathing are reported on, and the temporal relationship of the respiratory disturbance to the administration of L-dopa suggested a peak‐dose drug effect.
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The spectrum of levodopa‐related fluctuations in Parkinson's disease
The most commonly encountered form of fluctuating response is the predictable “wearing-off” of levodopa motor benefit, causing a transition from relative mobility to increased parkinsonism, with a return to the “on” state after the next dose of Levodopa.
End‐of‐dose dystonia in Parkinson's disease
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Early morning off-medication dyskinesias, dystonia, and choreic subtypes.
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The Clinical Profile of Nonmotor Fluctuations in Parkinson's Disease Patients
Nonmotor fluctuations had variable presentations and their co-appearance with different types of motor fluctuations may be linked to the effect of other neurotransmitter systems acting synchronously with dopamine.