Clinical significance of combined CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes in Japanese patients requiring warfarin.


The individual management of anticoagulation therapy is important for safe medical outcomes, including those of oral surgery. Here, Japanese patients who received warfarin (n = 35) and normal controls (n = 125) were analyzed by real-time PCR to determine the frequencies of single nucleotide polymorphisms in VKORC1 (vitamin K epoxide reductase complex, subunit 1) and CYP2C9 and how these frequencies related to warfarin dose and PT-INR. The genetic polymorphisms CYP2C9(*2) (416 C > T), CYP2C9(*3) (1061 A > C), and intron 1-136 C > T in VKORC1 (1173 C > T) were measured. All patients had the wild-type CYP2C9 gene (*1/*1). All 160 cases had the wild-type (CC) type CYP2C9(*2), 93.8% had AA type CYP2C9(*3), 6.2% had AC type CYP2C9(*3), 1.2% had CC type VKORC1, 13.8% had CT type VKORC1, and 85% had TT type VKORC1. The CC type VKORC1 genetic polymorphism was associated with a significantly higher mean warfarin maintenance dose (4.5 ± 0.5 mg) than other VKORC1 genotypes (TT type 2.9 ± 0.1 mg: CT type 3.4 ± 0.3 mg). Categorization of the patients in terms of the combined CYP2C9 and VKORC1 haplotype (the warfarin-responsive index; WRI) revealed the mean daily warfarin maintenance dose was 3.0 ± 0.1 mg for WRI 1 and 3.7 ± 0.3 mg for WRI 2 (P < 0.012). The event survey revealed 2 patients with nonfatal cerebral hemorrhage had a WRI score of 2 (VKORC1 C/T heterozygosity genotype). Thus, CYP2C9 and VKORC1 haplotype analysis allows prediction of warfarin maintenance dosage. The findings may provide a personalized use of warfarin in the field of oral surgery.