Cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1/TSLC1) was recently identified as a novel cell surface marker for adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). In this study, we developed various antibodies as diagnostic tools to identify CADM1-positive ATLL leukemia cells. In flow cytometric analysis, the percentages of CD4+CADM1+ double-positive cells correlated well with both the percentages of CD4+CD25+ cells and with abnormal lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of patients with various types of ATLL. Moreover, the degree of CD4+CADM1+ cells over 1% significantly correlated with the copy number of the human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) provirus in the peripheral blood of HTLV-1 carriers and ATLL patients. We also identified a soluble form of CADM1 in the peripheral blood of ATLL patients, and the expression levels of this form were correlated with the levels of soluble interleukin 2 receptor alpha. Moreover, lymphomas derived from ATLL were strongly and specifically stained with a CADM1 antibody. Thus, detection of CD4+CADM1+ cells in the peripheral blood, measurement of serum levels of soluble CADM1 and immunohistochemical detection of CADM1 in lymphomas would be a useful set of markers for disease progression in ATLL and may aid in both the early diagnosis and measurement of treatment efficacy for ATLL.