Prognostic factors for recurrence in early stage adult granulosa cell tumor of the ovary
BACKGROUND Ovarian adult-type granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are characterized as low-malignant and late-recurrent ovarian tumors. Although some clinical and pathological prognostic factors have been reported, other factors have yet to be sufficiently investigated for necessary confirmation. The aim of this study was to test the correlation between clinical factors and outcome, based on patients seen in a single institute. METHODS Thirty patients with pathologically confirmed adult-type GCTs between 1984 and 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Among them, eight (26.7%) had recurrence, which subsequently contributed to two mortalities. RESULTS In a comparison of the clinical characteristics of the premenopausal and postmenopausal women with GCT, all of the postmenopausal women had symptoms (100% vs. 63.6%, p = 0.01). With regard to disease recurrence, only abnormal preoperative serum cancer antigen 125 level (≥ 35 U/mL) was significant (50% vs. 11%, p = 0.03), and residual tumor showed a borderline trend (100% vs. 21.4%, p = 0.06). Other factors, including International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, tumor size, tumor rupture prior to or during operation, body mass index, parity, serum estrogen level, and adjuvant therapy, were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION Physicians should be alert to the difference in the symptom presentation of GCTs between pre- and postmenopausal women, giving particular attention to the usefulness of the preoperative serum level of cancer antigen 125 in patients with GCTs. More evidence is needed to confirm this observation.