OBJECTIVE To investigate the clinical, pathological and radiological characteristics of pleural tuberculoma, so as to improve the understanding of this disease. METHODS We retrospectively analyzed the clinical, laboratory, pathological and radiological data of 83 cases of pleural tuberculoma diagnosed by pathology and(or) bacteriology in Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital Affiliated to Tongji University. RESULTS In the recruited 83 cases, there were 50 males and 33 females, aged from 7 to 85 years old, with a mean age of 37.8 years. Cough, fever and chest pain were common symptoms, but no significant symptoms were seen in 25 patients (31.3%). Some patients had positive physical signs, such as dullness to percussion and low breath sound. Pulmonary tuberculosis was also present in 36 patients (43.3%) with pleural tuberculoma. A history of tuberculous pleurisy was elicited in 80 patients, among whom 45 (56.3%) received delayed antituberculous treatment and 42 (52.5%) received nonstandard treatment. Forty-eight cases (60.0%) did not receive corticosteroids. Fifty-nine cases underwent CT-guided percutaneous biopsy, while 24 underwent thoracoscopic surgery, and tuberculosis was pathologically confirmed in 62 (74.7%). Pathological profiles included granuloma, coagulation or caseation necrosis, lymphocyte infiltration, epithelioid cells, inflammatory cells, histiocytes and scar tissue. Fifteen (18.1%) specimens from percutaneous biopsy were anti-fast smear positive, while Mycobacterium tuberculosis was obtained by culture in 21 (25.3%) cases. Chest X-ray showed that solitary lesions were seen in 68 cases, multiple foci in 15. The lesions of 46 cases (55.4%) occupied the lower right lobes. Round-like shadows were the most common signs, which were present in 63 cases (75.9%). CT examination demonstrated homogeneous density in 20, heterogeneous density in 40, calcification in 9, central attenuation in 34, and peripheral intensification in 28 cases. CONCLUSIONS Pleural tuberculoma is an important sequelae of tuberculous pleurisy. Understanding its clinical, pathological and radiological characteristics is helpful for the differential diagnosis of pleural and lung diseases.