Clinical management of infertile men with nonobstructive azoospermia

  title={Clinical management of infertile men with nonobstructive azoospermia},
  author={Sandro C. Esteves},
  booktitle={Asian journal of andrology},
The clinical management of men with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) seeking fertility has been a challenge for andrologists, urologists, and reproductive medicine specialists alike. This review presents a personal perspective on the clinical management of NOA, including the lessons learned over 15 years dealing with this male infertility condition. A five-consecutive-step algorithm is proposed to manage such patients. First, a differential diagnosis of azoospermia is made to confirm/establish… CONTINUE READING