Clinical insights from the etiopathology of osteoporosis.


Bone resorption may be stimulated by increased parathyroid hormone secretion, certain cytokines, and other bone-resorbing mediators. Low serum calcium levels promote parathyroid hormone secretion, and estrogen deficiency is associated with a rise in cytokine production and activity. An abnormal proliferation of mast cells may also release cytokines, heparin… (More)