Twenty seven hypothyroid patients with a serum concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) of over 40 mU/1 were followed up for three to 20 weeks without replacement therapy. The serum thyroid hormone concentrations increased with a dramatic decrease in serum TSH values in 14 patients (reversible group) but there was no significant change in the other 13 (irreversible group). Fourteen out of 19 patients with goitre but none of the eight patients without goitre belonged to the reversible group. All of the 11 patients with a high uptake of iodide by the thyroid, three of the six with a normal uptake, and none of the 10 with a low uptake belonged to the reversible group. These observations indicate that patients with goitrous hypothyroidism with a preserved thyroid uptake of iodide are likely to become euthyroid spontaneously without replacement therapy.