Clinical effects of cardiac contractility modulation (CCM) as a treatment for chronic heart failure.

@article{Borggrefe2012ClinicalEO,
  title={Clinical effects of cardiac contractility modulation (CCM) as a treatment for chronic heart failure.},
  author={Martin Borggrefe and Daniel Burkhoff},
  journal={European journal of heart failure},
  year={2012},
  volume={14 7},
  pages={
          703-12
        }
}
  • Martin Borggrefe, Daniel Burkhoff
  • Published 2012
  • Medicine
  • European journal of heart failure
  • Cardiac contractility modulation (CCM) signals are non-excitatory signals applied during the absolute refractory period that have been shown to enhance the strength of left ventricular contraction without increasing myocardial oxygen consumption in studies carried out in animals and humans with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. Studies from myocardial tissue of animals and humans with heart failure suggest that the mechanisms of these effects is that CCM drives expression of many… CONTINUE READING

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