Clinical differentiation of the patient in pain: an introductory guideline for CRNAs.

  • J L Loach
  • Published 1997 in CRNA : the clinical forum for nurse anesthetists


Although the foundation of the specialty of anesthesiology is the treatment of pain, most CRNA practitioners are more focused on and competent in the maintenance of physiological dynamics than in the evaluation and treatment of pain. A lexicon and an established model based on the integration of pathology and pain behavior are discussed, and their mutual… (More)


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