It is well known that certain HLA class II alleles confer an increased risk for developing multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent studies have suggested HLA class I as a region that may also contribute to the development of MS. In this study, we investigated the association between HLA-DR, HLA-B alleles, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-chain-related gene A (MICA) transmembrane (MICA-TM) polymorphisms and disease progression in 104 MS patients and 116 healthy controls. DR1 was found to be decreased in patients when compared with controls (p(c) = 0.012). Neither HLA-B nor HLA-DR alleles were found to be associated with MS susceptibility. Furthermore, the prevalence of MICA-A5 in patients with relapsing MS was 9% while the prevalence in progressive forms was 42% (p(c) = 0.0015). The extended haplotypes related to MICA-TM5 that were found in our population were DR7-MICA5-B64 (EH 64.1, delta(s) = 0.38), DR4-MICA5-B62 (EH 62.1, delta(s) = 0.28), and DR11-MICA5-B35 (EH35.1, delta(s) = 0.10), but none of them were found to be associated to MS susceptibility or disease progression. Our data could indicate a possible role of MICA-TM in MS prognosis.