Clinical and operative staging of cervical cancer.

  title={Clinical and operative staging of cervical cancer.},
  author={N F Hacker},
  journal={Bailliere's clinical obstetrics and gynaecology},
  volume={2 4},
  • N F Hacker
  • Published 1988 in Bailliere's clinical obstetrics and gynaecology
Clinical staging is inaccurate in about 50% of patients with cervical cancer. Most patients will be upstaged on the basis of surgical exploration, usually because of occult nodal metastases. Data from surgical staging indicate that the incidence of positive para-aortic nodes is about 7% for patients with Stage I disease, about 17% for Stage II, and 28% for Stage III. Extended field radiation, to the level of T12, can salvage about 25% of patients with positive para-aortic nodes. About 40% of… CONTINUE READING