BACKGROUND Multiple primary lung cancer (MPLC) represents a rare variety of pulmonary malignant tumor while mainly consist of double primary lung cancer (DPLC), but the development of diagnostic techniques promotes the rate diagnosis of it in recent years. Here we summarize and anylasis the data of 30 cases with DPLC in expectation of improving congnitive of MPLC. METHODS We retrospectly studied 30 MPLC patients who diagnosed from January 2010 to December 2015 in Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University. The clinical characteristics, diagnosis, therapeutic methods and prognosis were analyzed. RESULTS Among 30 patients enrolled, metachronous DPLC (27/30, 90%) is far more common than synchronous DPLC. The majority of the lesions located at right upper lobe (20/60, 33.3%), and adenocarcinoma (25/60, 41.7%) turns out to be the major pathological patter. Patients with same pathological pattern of two lesions of DPLC (17/30, 56.7%) were slightly more than those with different pattern (13/30, 43.3%) and adeno-adeno was the most common pattern in the former ones. Cox regression anylasis shows that lymphatic metastasis (HR=4.349, 95%CI: 1.435-13.178, P=0.009) and experience of heavy smoking (HR=2.996, 95%CI: 1.089-8.240, P=0.034) were associate with worse prognosis. CONCLUSIONS DPLC are mainly located at right upper lobe, and mostly adenocarcinomas. Earlier diagnosis, active therapeutic approaches and a strict smoking cessation strategy may improve the prognosis of MPLC.