The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical signs and therapy of primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of bone (PLB). The clinical symptoms, signs, X-ray features, pathological morphology, immuno-phenotype and treatment of 23 patients with PLB were analyzed retrospectively. The results indicated that the main complains of 23 cases of PLB were local pain and tenderness; the radiographic and CT findings showed invasive in 15 cases, osteolytic in 5 cases, sclerotic in 2 cases and cystiform expansion in 1 cases. Most of histological types were diffuse large B cell lymphoma; there were single bone involvement in 21 cases and multiple involvement in 2 cases; 3 cases had pathologic fracture. In conclusion, PLB usually involved single bone, roentgenography and CT showed erosive and osteolytic bone destruction. The roentgenography and CT are difficult to diagnose PLB, the final diagnosis should be confirmed according to clinical features, pathological findings and immunohistochemistry assay. The immunohistochemistry is helpful to diagnosis and identification of histological type for PLB. The therapeutic procedure for PLB mainly includes local radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy.