- V Barak, DA van, MJ Duffy
Although a myriad of markers have been proposed for malignancy, only a minority have been adequately validated for routine clinical use. Apart from PSA in prostate cancer, markers are of little value in the detection of early malignancy. Several markers however, are currently used in the post-operative management of patients with diagnosed malignancy. Markers generally recommended for the management of patients with malignancy include CEA in colorectal cancer, AFP and HCG in patients with non-seminomatous germ cell tumors, AFP in hepatocellular cancer, CA 125 in ovarian cancer, CA 15-3 in breast cancer and CA 19-9 in patients with pancreatic cancer. Although widely used, the impact of PSA screening in reducing mortality from prostate cancer is inconclusive. Emerging markers include PCA3 and -2proPSA for prostate cancer, proGRP for small-cell lung cancer and HE4 for ovarian cancer.