Physiome approach for the analysis of vascular flow reserve in the heart and brain
OBJECTIVE The objective was to delineate the current knowledge of fractional flow reserve (FFR) in terms of definition, features, clinical applications, and pitfalls of measurement of FFR. DATA SOURCES We searched database for primary studies published in English. The database of National Library of Medicine (NLM), MEDLINE, and PubMed up to July 2014 was used to conduct a search using the keyword term "FFR". STUDY SELECTION The articles about the definition, features, clinical application, and pitfalls of measurement of FFR were identified, retrieved, and reviewed. RESULTS Coronary pressure-derived FFR rapidly assesses the hemodynamic significance of individual coronary artery lesions and can readily be performed in the catheterization laboratory. The use of FFR has been shown to effectively guide coronary revascularization procedures leading to improved patient outcomes. CONCLUSIONS FFR is a valuable tool to determine the functional significance of coronary stenosis. It combines physiological and anatomical information, and can be followed immediately by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) if necessary. The technique of FFR measurement can be performed easily, rapidly, and safely in the catheterization laboratory. By systematic use of FFR in dubious stenosis and multi-vessel disease, PCI can be made an even more effective and better treatment than it is currently. The current clinical evidence for FFR should encourage cardiologists to use this tool in the catheterization laboratory.