Clinical Pharmacology of Tramadol

@article{Grond2004ClinicalPO,
  title={Clinical Pharmacology of Tramadol},
  author={Stefan Grond and Armin Sablotzki},
  journal={Clinical Pharmacokinetics},
  year={2004},
  volume={43},
  pages={879-923}
}
Tramadol, a centrally acting analgesic structurally related to codeine and morphine, consists of two enantiomers, both of which contribute to analgesic activity via different mechanisms. (+)-Tramadol and the metabolite (+)-O-desmethyl-tramadol (M1) are agonists of the μ. opioid receptor. (+)-Tramadol inhibits serotonin reuptake and (−)-tramadol inhibits norepinephrine reuptake, enhancing inhibitory effects on pain transmission in the spinal cord. The complementary and synergistic actions of the… 
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