Clinical Pharmacology of Citrus bergamia: A Systematic Review

  title={Clinical Pharmacology of Citrus bergamia: A Systematic Review},
  author={Carmen Mannucci and Michele Navarra and Fabrizio Calapai and Raffaele Squeri and Sebastiano Gangemi and Gioacchino Calapai},
  journal={Phytotherapy Research},
  pages={27 - 39}
Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau (“Bergamot”) originated from the Mediterranean ecoregion (southern Italy, Calabria). Bergamot essential oil (BEO) is used in perfumes, cosmetics, and for stress reduction. Juice from C. bergamia has been used for hyperlipidemia. We evaluated literature published on C. bergamia clinical applications. Clinical trials on C. bergamia not combined with other substances, published in English, were searched. We selected ten articles, six describing BEO effects on… 
Clinical application of bergamot (Citrus bergamia) for reducing high cholesterol and cardiovascular disease markers.
The bergamot is a citrus fruit native to southern Italy with traditional uses that include improving immune response and cardiovascular function and their effectiveness in reducing total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in patients with hypercholesterolemia is reported.
The Effect of Processing Methods on Phytochemical Composition in Bergamot Juice
Results indicate that the process employed may influence the chemical composition and the functional properties of the ended juice, and that the screw press juice showed the highest antioxidant activity with EC50 value of 9.35 µg/mL, suggesting that this method maintains for health the nutritional quality of a fresh-pressed juice.
Antioxidant and Antisenescence Effects of Bergamot Juice
The ability of juice to counteract the chemical-induced senescence was here demonstrated in both cellular models, suggesting that bergamot juice exerts antioxidant and antisenescence effects, making it useful for nutraceutical purposes.
Clinical Pharmacology of Citrus aurantium and Citrus sinensis for the Treatment of Anxiety
Objective The aim of this review is to analyze preclinical and clinical studies investigating the anxiety effects of Citrus aurantium or Citrus sinensis essential oils (EOs). Design The bibliographic
Bergamot (Citrus bergamia) Essential Oil Inhalation Improves Positive Feelings in the Waiting Room of a Mental Health Treatment Center: A Pilot Study
Preliminary evidence of the efficacy and safety of bergamot essential oil inhalation on mental well‐being in a mental health treatment center is provided, suggesting that b Bergamotessential oil aromatherapy can be an effective adjunct treatment to improve individuals' mental health and well-being.
Hypolipaemic nutraceutics: red yeast rice and Armolipid, berberine and bergamot.
Red yeast rice products and Armolipid may be used as an alternative treatment in statin intolerant patients, especially in combination with ezetimibe and the opinion of experts on berberine and bergamot is ambiguous.
Analgesic Potential of Monoterpenes from Citrus Essential Oils
Chronic pain is a noteworthy health issue with immense impact on global healthcare systems. Although this issue has not come into the limelight as other noncommunicable diseases, it should be
Efficacy of bergamot: From anti‐inflammatory and anti‐oxidative mechanisms to clinical applications as preventive agent for cardiovascular morbidity, skin diseases, and mood alterations
Compared to baseline, BE topical application and BEO aromatherapy reduce blood diastolic and systolic pressure and could have a significant effect on improving mental conditions.
Characterization and Purification of Bergamottin from Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck cv. Yongjiazaoxiangyou and Its Antiproliferative Activity and Effect on Glucose Consumption in HepG2 cells
Bergamottin showed significant antiproliferative activity on three cancer cell lines, i.e., human liver cancer HepG2, promyelocytic leukemia HL-60, and gastric cancer BGC-823 cells, which is the first report of its potential in anti-diabetes applications.


Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application
Clinical studies on the therapeutic applications of BEO exclusively focus on the field of aromatherapy, suggesting that its use can be useful for reducing anxiety and stress.
Hypolipidemic effects of Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau juice in rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet.
Results suggest that the positive intake of C. bergamia may reduce the risk of some cardiovascular diseases through its radical scavenging function and hypocholesterolemic action.
Study on the chemical composition variability of some processed bergamot (Citrus bergamia) essential oils
Bergamot oil (Citrus bergamia) is mainly employed in the perfumery and cosmetic industries and also, in a smaller amount, in the pharmaceutical and food industries, for its fragrant notes, fixative
Effects of Bergamot (Citrus bergamia (Risso) Wright & Arn.) Essential Oil Aromatherapy on Mood States, Parasympathetic Nervous System Activity, and Salivary Cortisol Levels in 41 Healthy Females
These results demonstrate that BEO inhaled together with water vapor exerts psychological and physiological effects in a relatively short time.
Anti‐infective potential of Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau (bergamot) derivatives: a systematic review
A systematic review on the anti‐infective properties of bergamot derivatives that highlight the activity of bERGamot essential oil against bacteria, mycetes and larvae, as well as the anti-Helicobacter pylori effect of b Bergamot juice and the antimicrobial properties of extracts from bergAMot peel are presented.
Citrus bergamia : Bergamot and its Derivatives
The book examines the chemical composition of bergamot in peel oils, leaf oils, juice, and fruits, extracted by various techniques—mechanical, distillation, and by supercritical fluids. It covers
Neuropharmacology of the essential oil of bergamot.
Mechanisms Underlying the Anti-Tumoral Effects of Citrus bergamia Juice
It is shown that BJ reduced growth rate of different cancer cell lines, with the maximal growth inhibition observed in neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) after 72 hs of exposure to 5% BJ.
A Critical Approach to Evaluating Clinical Efficacy, Adverse Events and Drug Interactions of Herbal Remedies
A critical evaluation of the clinical data regarding the adverse effects has shown that herbal remedies are generally better tolerated than synthetic medications, Nevertheless, potentially serious adverse events, including herb–drug interactions, have been described and the need to be vigilant when using herbal remedies, particularly in specific conditions, such as during pregnancy and in the paediatric population.