Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Ethanol

  title={Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Ethanol},
  author={Nick H G Holford},
  journal={Clinical Pharmacokinetics},
  • N. Holford
  • Published 1 November 1987
  • Medicine
  • Clinical Pharmacokinetics
SummaryThe pharmacokinetics of ethanol after typical doses are described by a 1-compartment model with concentration-dependent elimination. The volume of distribution estimated from blood concentrations is about 37 L/70kg. Protein binding of ethanol has not been reported. Elimination is principally by metabolism in the liver with small amounts excreted in the breath (0.7%), urine (0.3%), and sweat (0.1%). Metabolism occurs, principally by alcohol dehydrogenase, in the liver to acetaldehyde… 
Role of Variability in Explaining Ethanol Pharmacokinetics
Recent work supports the need for multicompartment models to describe the disposition of ethanol instead of the traditional one-compartment model with zero-order elimination, and appropriate statistical analysis is needed to isolate between- and within-subject components of variation.
Pharmacokinetics of Ethanol - Issues of Forensic Importance.
  • A. Jones
  • Medicine
    Forensic science review
  • 2011
The development of forensic pharmacokinetics of ethanol from a historical perspective is traced, followed by a discussion of important issues related to the disposition and fate of ethanol in the body, including quantitative evaluation of blood-alcohol curves and the factors influencing the peak concentration in blood and the time of its occurrence.
Noncompetitive-like inhibition of ethanol elimination by cyanamide treatment: pharmacokinetic study.
Findings in the blood ethanol concentration-time curve suggest adequate curve-fitting in the pharmacokinetic mechanism of the inhibition of ethanol metabolism by cyanamide, an inhibitor of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase, correspond to a noncompetitive-like inhibition ofanol metabolism.
Application of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model to estimate the bioavailability of ethanol in male rats: distinction between gastric and hepatic pathways of metabolic clearance.
  • G. Pastino, R. Conolly
  • Medicine, Biology
    Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology
  • 2000
The use of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for ethanol in rats allows a more detailed examination of physiological and biochemical factors affecting the bioavailability of ethanol than has previously been possible.
The Pharmacokinetics of Methanol in the Presence of Ethanol
A detailed understanding of the pharmacokinetics of meethanol and ethanol in the presence of each other is required to accurately determine the doses of ethanol required to treat different methanol poisonings.
Within- and between-subject variations in pharmacokinetic parameters of ethanol by analysis of breath, venous blood and urine.
The low within-subject variation of the key parameter Vss (only 2%) suggests that ethanol dilution analysed by the pharmacokinetic model applied here may be used as an index of the total body water.
A human PBPK model for ethanol describing inhibition of gastric motility
A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for investigating inter-individual and inter-racial variability in ethanol pharmacokinetics is presented and is proposed as suitable for the investigation of the effects of both acute and chronic ethanol exposure.
Effect of acute ethanol administration on toloxatone pharmacokinetics in rabbits.
Toloxatone passage through the blood brain barrier was rapid and important and acute ethanol administration had no effect on toloxatones pharmacokinetics and that tol Roxatone administration hadno effect on ethanol pharmacokinetic.
Ethanol kinetics: extent of error in back extrapolation procedures.
The results indicate that because the kinetics of ethanol are associated with substantial inter-subject variability the use of a single slope value to back calculate blood concentrations can give rise to considerable error.
Elimination and phase II metabolism of ethanol in camels after intravenous administration.


Effects of Ethanol on Drug and Metabolite Pharmacokinetics
Pharmacokinetic interactions of ethanol with other drugs, including its effects upon drug metabolite disposition, are reviewed in terms of clearance concepts to help understand the mechanisms of ethanol-drug interactions.
The metabolism and pharmacokinetics of alcohol in man.
  • P. Mullen
  • Medicine, Chemistry
    Journal - Forensic Science Society
  • 1977
[Pharmacokinetics of alcohol after 3-hour intravenous infusion with and without cimetidine in 10 healthy non-alcoholic subjects].
The fact that the ethanol elimination rate is similar whatever be its concentration and the absence of modifications of the pharmacokinetic parameters by cimetidine are not in favor of an important role of the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system (MEOS) in the ethanol metabolism of nonalcoholic subjects.
Ethanol 'dose-dependent' elimination: Michaelis-Menten v classical kinetic analysis.
1 To compare classical linear regression techniques and a Michaelis-Menten elimination model eight normal human volunteers each received three intravenous doses (0.375, 0.5, and 0.75 g/kg) of ethanol
The pharmacokinetics of alcohol excretion in human perspiration.
The data indicates that ETOH elimination via perspiration does not parallel the breath and that the pharmacokinetic parameters are significantly different.
Effect of intravenous infusions of ethanol upon estimated hepatic blood flow in man.
  • A. Mendeloff
  • Medicine
    The Journal of clinical investigation
  • 1954
It is demonstrated that the infusion of small amounts of ethanol in saline into unanesthetized adult human subjects produces consistently significant increases in estimated hepatic blood flow, most probably as a result of a specific decrease in splanchnic peripheral resistance.
Absorption, distribution and elimination of alcohol: highway safety aspects.
  • K. Dubowski
  • Medicine
    Journal of studies on alcohol. Supplement
  • 1985
From the existing information on pharmacokinetics of alcohol and the characteristics and variability of blood and breath alcohol versus time curves, the following conclusions can be reached.
Blood ethanol concentrations during and following constant‐rate intravenous infusion of alcohol
The total time course of blood ethanol concentrations in man was defined, both during and postirifusion of ethyl alcohol infusion, with a disproportionate increase in area under the concentration‐time curve with increase in dose.