Clinical Application of Pharmacogenomics

@article{Ma2012ClinicalAO,
  title={Clinical Application of Pharmacogenomics},
  author={Joseph D Ma and Kelly C. Lee and Grace M. Kuo},
  journal={Journal of Pharmacy Practice},
  year={2012},
  volume={25},
  pages={417 - 427}
}
The purpose of this review is to discuss the clinical application of pharmacogenomics for select drug therapies (eg, proton pump inhibitors [PPIs], codeine, and carbamazepine) and to highlight limitations and challenges that preclude implementation of pharmacogenomics into clinical practice. Genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and the presence of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*1502 allele influence drug disposition and/or response. A portion of PPI pharmacokinetic and… 
Pharmacogenomics and therapeutic drugs monitoring: Are they complementary?
TLDR
Therapy with anticancer drugs irinotecan and azathioprine may also benefit from pharmacogenomic testing, and Hypersensitivity of carbamazepine is related to HLA-B*1502.
Pharmacogenomics: Clinical Perspective, Strategies, and Challenges
TLDR
The objective of this chapter is to discuss the basic principle of PGx and its application and also to put forward the ethical, social, technological, and economic challenges in the way of PGX.
Towards personalized opioid dosing: A concise overview of CYP polymorphisms
TLDR
Patients who have genotype polymorphisms in these enzymes are phenotypically (clinically) poor, intermediate, extensive, or ultra-rapid metabolizers, affecting how rapidly or to what extent an individual patient metabolizes opioids.
CYP2C19 Phenoconversion by Routinely Prescribed Proton Pump Inhibitors Omeprazole and Esomeprazole: Clinical Implications for Personalized Medicine
TLDR
The incidence of PM status by phenotype following administration of omeprazole/esomeprazole (known inhibitors of CYP2C19) was 10-fold higher than those who are genetically PMs in the general population, which could have critical clinical implications for personalizing medications primarily metabolized by CYP1C19.
CYP 2 C 19 Phenoconversion by Routinely Prescribed Proton Pump Inhibitors Omeprazole and Esomeprazole : Clinical Implications for Personalized Medicine s
The phenotype pantoprazole-C breath test (Ptz-BT) was used to evaluate the extent of phenoconversion of CYP2C19 enzyme activity caused by commonly prescribed proton pump inhibitors (PPI) omeprazole
LightSNiP assay is a good strategy for pharmacogenetics test
TLDR
The advantages of real-time PCR assays for the detection of three SNPs selected for their involvement in DPD and UGT1A1 enzymes regulations and not of practical use for small to medium size laboratories are described.
Pharmacogenomics and COVID-19: clinical implications of human genome interactions with repurposed drugs
  • O. Badary
  • Medicine
    The pharmacogenomics journal
  • 2021
TLDR
The available human genome interactions with some promising repurposed drugs for COVID-19 management, including chloroquine, azithromycin, lopinavir/ritonavir, and remdesivir are reviewed.
Effect of the CYP2D6*10 allele on the pharmacokinetics of clomiphene and its active metabolites
TLDR
Along with the partial impacts on the biotransformation of clomiphene and its metabolites by CYP2D6 genetic polymorphism, further studies on the effects of other CYP enzymes in a multiple-dosing condition can provide more definite evidence for the inter-individual variabilities in clomIPhene pharmacokinetics and/or drug response.
DMET™ (Drug Metabolism Enzymes and Transporters): a pharmacogenomic platform for precision medicine
TLDR
This review focuses on the potentiality, reliability and limitations of the DMET™ (Drug Metabolism Enzymes and Transporters) Plus as pharmacogenomic drug metabolism multi-gene panel platform for selecting biomarkers in the final aim to optimize drugs use and characterize the individual genetic background.
The effect of proton pump inhibitors on the CYP2C19 enzyme activity evaluated by the pantoprazole-13C breath test in GERD patients: clinical relevance for personalized medicine.
TLDR
The concommitant use of omeprazole/esomeprazole could have critical clinical relevance in individualizing medications metabolized primarily by CYP2C19 such as PPI, clopidogrel, phenytoin, cyclophosphamide, thalidomide, citalopram, clonazepam, diazepam, proguanil, tivantinib etc.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 126 REFERENCES
Impact of CYP2C19 polymorphisms on the clinical action of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs)
  • U. Klotz
  • Medicine
    European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
  • 2008
TLDR
It can be concluded that CYP2C19 polymorphisms will have less impact for esomeprazole if compared to omeprazole, and a larger contribution of CYP3A4 to the overall metabolic clearance of Eur J Clin Pharmacol (2009) 65:1–2 DOI 10.1007/s00228-008-0571-x.
Influence of cytochrome P450 polymorphisms on drug therapies: pharmacogenetic, pharmacoepigenetic and clinical aspects.
TLDR
It is concluded that the pharmacogenetic knowledge regarding CYP polymorphism now developed to a stage where it can be implemented in drug development and in clinical routine for specific drug treatments, thereby improving the drug response and reducing costs for drug treatment.
Pharmacogenetics of cytochrome P4502D6: genetic background and clinical implication
  • I. Cascorbi
  • Medicine
    European journal of clinical investigation
  • 2003
TLDR
Since there is evidence that deteriorated drug elimination partly accounts for drug side‐effects, CYP2D6 genotyping could contribute to an individualized and therefore optimized drug therapy.
The clinical role of cytochrome p450 genotypes in Helicobacter pylori management
TLDR
This first pharmacogenomics study on the influence of different CYP genotypes on H. pylori therapy suggests that, as in Asian populations, CYP2C19 genotype patterns are probably also relevant in Caucasians receiving H.pylori eradication regimens that include omeprazole.
Clinical Significance of the Cytochrome P450 2C19 Genetic Polymorphism
TLDR
Genotyping for the common alleles of CYP2C19 before initiating PPIs for the treatment of reflux disease and H. pylori infection is a cost effective tool to determine appropriate duration of treatment and dosage regimens and, because of its narrow therapeutic range, genotyping of CYPs in addition to CYP1C9 may be needed to optimise the dosage of phenytoin.
Genetic Predictors of the Clinical Response to Opioid Analgesics
This review uses a candidate gene approach to identify possible pharmacogenetic modulators of opioid therapy, and discusses these modulators together with demonstrated genetic causes for the
Cytochrome P450 2D6: overview and update on pharmacology, genetics, biochemistry
TLDR
The intricate genetics of the CYP2D6 polymorphism is becoming apparent at ever greater detail, applications in clinical practice are still rare, and more clinical studies are needed to show where patients benefit from drug dose adjustment based on their genotype.
Proton pump inhibitors: an update of their clinical use and pharmacokinetics
  • S. Shi, U. Klotz
  • Medicine
    European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
  • 2008
TLDR
This update of pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and clinical data will provide the necessary guide by which to select between the various PPIs that differ—based on pharmacodynamic assessments—in their relative potencies.
A Pharmacogenomics Primer
  • M. H. Court
  • Medicine
    Journal of clinical pharmacology
  • 2007
TLDR
The purpose of this review is to provide the clinical pharmacologist with a primer on the principles and molecular mechanisms underlying pharmacogenomics, and the methods currently being used to discover novel pharmacogenomic biomarkers and then apply these to clinical practice.
Different contribution of CYP2C19 in the in vitro metabolism of three proton pump inhibitors.
TLDR
A comparative in vitro study was conducted using the human liver microsomes and newly developed anti-human CYP antibodies, and the relative contribution of CYP2C19 on total metabolism of 3 PPIs elucidated herein coincided with the CYP1C19 genotype-dependent pharmacokinetics.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...