Climatic, environmental and human consequences of the largest known historic eruption: Tambora volcano (Indonesia) 1815

@article{Oppenheimer2003ClimaticEA,
  title={Climatic, environmental and human consequences of the largest known historic eruption: Tambora volcano (Indonesia) 1815},
  author={Clive Oppenheimer},
  journal={Progress in Physical Geography},
  year={2003},
  volume={27},
  pages={230 - 259}
}
  • C. Oppenheimer
  • Published 1 June 2003
  • Environmental Science
  • Progress in Physical Geography
The 1815 eruption of Tambora volcano (Sumbawa island, Indonesia) expelled around 140 gt of magma (equivalent to ≈50 km3 of dense rock), making it the largest known historic eruption. More than 95% by mass of the ejecta was erupted as pyroclastic flows, but 40% by mass of the material in these flows ended up as ash fallout from the ‘phoenix’ clouds that lofted above the flows during their emplacement. Although they made only a minor contribution to the total magnitude of the eruption, the short… 
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