Climate simulations for 1880–2003 with GISS modelE

  title={Climate simulations for 1880–2003 with GISS modelE},
  author={James E. Hansen and M. Sato and Reto Ruedy and Pushker A. Kharecha and Andrew A. Lacis and R. Miller and Larissa S. Nazarenko and Ken K. Lo and Gavin A. Schmidt and Gary L. Russell and Igor Aleinov and Stefan Bauer and Ellen Baum and B. Cairns and Vittorio Canuto and Matthew R. Chandler and Y. Cheng and A. Cohen and Anthony D. Del Genio and Gregory Faluvegi and Erik Fleming and Andrew D. Friend and Timothy M. Hall and CM Jackman and Jeffrey A. Jonas and Maxwell Kelley and Nancy Y. Kiang and Dorothy M. Koch and Gordon J. Labow and Jean Lerner and Surabi Menon and Tica Novakov and V. Oinas and Jan P. Perlwitz and Judith Perlwitz and David Rind and Anastasia Romanou and Robert B. Schmunk and Drew T. Shindell and Peter H. Stone and S. W. Sun and David G. Streets and Nicholas Tausnev and Duane Thresher and Nadine Unger and Mao-sung Yao and S F Zhang},
  journal={Climate Dynamics},
We carry out climate simulations for 1880–2003 with GISS modelE driven by ten measured or estimated climate forcings. An ensemble of climate model runs is carried out for each forcing acting individually and for all forcing mechanisms acting together. We compare side-by-side simulated climate change for each forcing, all forcings, observations, unforced variability among model ensemble members, and, if available, observed variability. Discrepancies between observations and simulations with all… 

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