Climate in Medieval Time

  title={Climate in Medieval Time},
  author={Raymond S. Bradley and Malcolm K. Hughes and Henry F. Diaz},
  pages={404 - 405}
Many papers have referred to a "Medieval Warm Period." But how well defined is climate in this period, and was it as warm as or warmer than it is today? In their Perspective, [ Bradley et al .][1] review the evidence and conclude that although the High Medieval (1100 to 1200 A.D.) was warmer than subsequent centuries, it was not warmer than the late 20th century. Moreover, the warmest Medieval temperatures were not synchronous around the globe. Large changes in precipitation patterns are a… 
Extensive glaciers in northwest North America during Medieval time
The Medieval Warm Period is an interval of purportedly warm climate during the early part of the past millennium. The duration, areal extent, and even existence of the Medieval Warm Period have been
The origin of the European "Medieval Warm Period"
Abstract. Proxy records and results of a three dimensional climate model show that European summer temperatures roughly a millennium ago were comparable to those of the last 25 years of the 20th
Characterization of the Medieval Climate Anomaly, Little Ice Age and recent warming in northern Lapland
The major climate events of the Common Era (CE) have global imprints but significant variations in their timing and magnitude have been suggested. For reliable assessments of the past climate
Climate variability and change in the drylands of Western North America
Abstract We argue that it is important to expand the consideration of climate in the context of provision of ecosystem services in drylands. In addition to climate change, it is necessary to include
A Regional Approach to the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age
In order to gain knowledge of the temperature variability prior to the establishment of a widespread network of instrumental measurements c. AD 1850, we have to draw information from proxy data
The medieval climate anomaly and the little Ice Age in coastal Syria inferred from pollen-derived palaeoclimatic patterns
The alluvial deposits of a small spring valley near Jableh, in north-western coastal Syria, provides a unique record of environmental history covering the last 1000 years. The pollen-derived climatic
The Medieval Warm Period, the Little Ice Age and simulated climatic variability
The CSIRO Mark 2 coupled global climatic model has been used to generate a 10,000-year simulation for ‘present’ climatic conditions. The model output has been analysed to identify sustained climatic
Structure and origin of Holocene cold events
Abstract The present interglacial, the Holocene, spans the period of the last 11,700 years. It has sustained the growth and development of modern society. The millennial-scale decreasing solar
The Medieval Climate Anomaly and Byzantium: A review of the evidence on climatic fluctuations, economic performance and societal change
Abstract At the beginning of the Medieval Climate Anomaly, in the ninth and tenth century, the medieval eastern Roman empire, more usually known as Byzantium, was recovering from its early medieval
Multi-scale temperature variations and their regional differences in China during the Medieval Climate Anomaly
The Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA, AD950-1250) is the most recent warm period lasting for several hundred years and is regarded as a reference scenario when studying the impact of and adaptation to


Was there a ‘medieval warm period’, and if so, where and when?
It has frequently been suggested that the period encompassing the ninth to the fourteenth centuries A.D. experienced a climate warmer than that prevailing around the turn of the twentieth century.
The early medieval warm epoch and its sequel
Abstract Evidence has been accumulating in many fields of investigation pointing to a notably warm climate in many parts of the world, that lasted a few centuries around A.D. 1000–1200, and was
Southward Migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone Through the Holocene
The Cariaco Basin record exhibits strong correlations with climate records from distant regions, including the high-latitude Northern Hemisphere, providing evidence for global teleconnections among regional climates.
Proxy climatic and environmental changes of the past 1000 years
The 1000 yr climatic and environmental history of the Earth contained in various proxy records is reviewed. As indicators, the proxies duly represent local climate. Because each is of a different
Solar Forcing of Regional Climate Change During the Maunder Minimum
In the model, these occur primarily through a forced shift toward the low index state of the Arctic Oscillation/North Atlantic Oscillations as solar irradiance decreases, which leads to colder temperatures over the Northern Hemisphere continents, especially in winter.
Northern Hemisphere Temperatures During the Past Millennium: Inferences, Uncertainties, and Limitations
Building on recent studies, we attempt hemispheric temperature reconstructions with proxy data networks for the past millennium. We focus not just on the reconstructions, but the uncertainties
Record of Volcanism Since 7000 B.C. from the GISP2 Greenland Ice Core and Implications for the Volcano-Climate System
Sulfate concentrations from continuous biyearly sampling of the GISP2 Greenland ice core provide a record of potential climate-forcing volcanism since 7000 B.C. with sulfate deposition equal to or up to five times that of the largest known historical eruptions.
A 4100-year record of explosive volcanism from an East Antarctica ice core
Extensive archives of volcanic history are available from ice cores recovered from the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets that receive and preserve sulfuric acid fallout from explosive volcanic
Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions
An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the
References and Notes
our experimentation could eventually be used to discredit our findings, should they happen not to agree with the original observations. It seems important that all experiments in the rapidly