Climate change and freshwater ecosystems: impacts across multiple levels of organization.

  title={Climate change and freshwater ecosystems: impacts across multiple levels of organization.},
  author={Guy Woodward and Daniel M. Perkins and Lee E Brown},
  journal={Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences},
  volume={365 1549},
Fresh waters are particularly vulnerable to climate change because (i) many species within these fragmented habitats have limited abilities to disperse as the environment changes; (ii) water temperature and availability are climate-dependent; and (iii) many systems are already exposed to numerous anthropogenic stressors. Most climate change studies to date have focused on individuals or species populations, rather than the higher levels of organization (i.e. communities, food webs, ecosystems… CONTINUE READING
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