Climate change 2001 : the scientific basis

  title={Climate change 2001 : the scientific basis},
  author={John Theodore Houghton and Y. Ding and David John Griggs and Maria Noguer and Paul van der Linden and Xin-Gang Dai and Kathy Maskell and C. A. Johnson},
  journal={Foreign Affairs},
Summary for policymakers Technical summary 1. The climate system - an overview 2. Observed climate variability and change 3. The carbon cycle and atmospheric CO2 4. Atmospheric chemistry and greenhouse gases 5. Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects 6. Radiative forcing of climate change 7. Physical climate processes and feedbacks 8. Model evaluation 9. Projections of future climate change 10. Regional climate simulation - evaluation and projections 11. Changes in sea level 12. Detection… 

Australian climate change projections derived from simulations performed for the IPCC 4th Assessment Report

Atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations have increased rapidly in the past century and are almost certain to continue to increase in the future (IPCC 2001a). Global Climate Models (GCMs) are the

Issues and Approaches to Climate Change

Understanding the climate system is a problem of great intrinsic scientific interest. Our growing understanding of interactions among the atmosphere, oceans, biosphere, and cryosphere is

Uncertainty Analysis of Climate Change and Policy Response

To aid climate policy decisions, accurate quantitative descriptions of the uncertainty in climate outcomes under various possible policies are needed. Here, we apply an earth systems model to

Climate Models: An Assessment of Strengths and Limitations

This Synthesis and Assessment Product (SAP 3.1) focuses on the Climate models. Scientists extensively use mathematical models of Earth's climate, executed on the most powerful computers available, to

Climate Change Scenarios and Their Potential Impact on World Agriculture

Global and regional climate can change as a result of natural and anthropogenic factors. This chapter provides a brief synopsis of those factors, including processes that have driven historic, and

Twentieth century climate model response and climate sensitivity

Climate forcing and climate sensitivity are two key factors in understanding Earth's climate. There is considerable interest in decreasing our uncertainty in climate sensitivity. This study explores

The dependence of equilibrium climate sensitivity on climate state: Applications to studies of climates colder than present

We investigate the sensitivity of climate to a broad range of greenhouse gas forcing with coupled atmosphere‐ocean general circulation models using atmospheric CO2 concentrations ranging from ~1400

Climate change. Uncertainty and climate change assessments.

The uncertainty assessment process of the IPCC should be improved in the future by using a consistent approach to quantifying uncertainty, focusing the quantification on the few key results most important for policy making.

Regional-Scale Assessment of the Climatic Role of Forests Under Future Climate Conditions

Several natural and anthropogenic processes influence the climate of the Earth. Human affect climate through increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, changing aerosol compositions as well as by land

The influence of land-use change and landscape dynamics on the climate system: relevance to climate-change policy beyond the radiative effect of greenhouse gases

  • R. PielkeG. Marland S. Running
  • Environmental Science
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
  • 2002
A new metric is needed to quantify the human disturbance of the Earth's surface-energy budget, and this ‘regional climate change potential’ could offer a new metric for developing a more inclusive climate protocol.



Climate change 1994 : radiative forcing of climate change and an evaluation of the IPCC IS92 emission scenarios

Foreword Part I. Radiative Forcing of Climate Change: A Summary for Policy Makers: Preface to WGI Report Dedication 1. CO2 and the carbon cycle 2. Other trace gases and atmospheric chemistry 3.

Response of the climate system to atmospheric aerosols and greenhouse gases

RECENTLY, Kiehl and Briegleb1 evaluated the radiative forcing associated with the capacity of atmospheric sulphate aerosols to reflect solar radiation back into space, and compared this with the

The influence on climate forcing of mineral aerosols from disturbed soils

AEROSOLS influence the global radiation budget1, and so changes in the atmospheric aerosol load due to either natural causes or human activity will contribute to climate change2. A large fraction of


An algorithm for size-distributed atmospheric aerosols designed for the Northern Aerosol Regional Climate Model [NARCM] is applied to three versions of the Canadian climate models: GCM, RCM and

Quantifying and minimizing uncertainty of climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols

The clear-sky climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols has been shown to be of sufficient magnitude to mask the effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases over large regions. Anthropogenic aerosols

Atmospheric aerosols: Biogeochemical sources and role in atmospheric chemistry

Atmospheric aerosols play important roles in climate and atmospheric chemistry: They scatter sunlight, provide condensation nuclei for cloud droplets, and participate in heterogeneous chemical

Radiative forcing and climate response

We examine the sensitivity of a climate model to a wide range of radiative forcings, including changes of solar irradiance, atmospheric CO2, O3, CFCs, clouds, aerosols, surface albedo, and a “ghost”

Aerosols and climate: Anthropogenic emissions and trends for 50 years

A global inventory has been prepared for anthropogenic particulate emissions into the troposphere that covers the period 1990–2040. The inventory provides estimates for both primary particulate

General circulation model assessment of direct radiative forcing by the sulfate-nitrate-ammonium-water inorganic aerosol system

An on-line simulation of aerosol sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and water in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies general circulation model (GCM II-prime) has been used to estimate direct aerosol

Effects of Aerosol from Biomass Burning on the Global Radiation Budget

An analysis is made of the likely contribution of smoke particles from biomass burning to the global radiation balance, which may add up globally to a cooling effect as large as 2 watts per square meter, comparable to the estimated contribution of sulfate aerosols.