Climate and the History of Egypt: The Middle Kingdom

  title={Climate and the History of Egypt: The Middle Kingdom},
  author={Barbara Bell},
  journal={American Journal of Archaeology},
  pages={223 - 269}
  • B. Bell
  • Published 1 July 1975
  • History
  • American Journal of Archaeology
The first major section of this paper (p. 226f) surveys evidence bearing on the level of the Nile during the Middle Kingdom and the Second Intermediate Period, 1991 to ca. 1570 B.C. With the exception of the analysis of the range of a "good flood" in the reign of Senwosret I, most of the evidence comes from excavations stimulated by the building of the High Dam at Aswan, from nowflooded sites in Nubia, and from the inscriptions on the cliffs at the Semna region of the Second Cataract, long… 
The Stone Age in the Central Balkan Area
This chapter deals with the prehistory of countries: Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, and Albania. In the central part of the Balkan Peninsula the easiest crossing of the watershed between the Aegean Sea and
The Prehistory of Albania
The Italians discovered the first traces of Palaeolithic life in Albania, and also some cave-dwellings containing Neolithic deposits. It is only in the last thirty-five years that it has been
The decline of Late Bronze Age civilization as a possible response to climatic change
The disintegration of Eastern Mediterranean civilization at the end of the late Bronze Age (late thirteenth and twelfth centuries B.C.) has traditionally been attributed to the irruption of new
Sandhills, sandbanks, waterways, canals and sacred lakes at Sais in the Nile Delta
Abstract. The paper explores the relationship between the archaeological zones of the ancient city of Sais at Sa el-Hagar, Egypt, and the natural landscape of the western central Nile Delta and, in
Sociopolitical Discontinuity in the Near East C. 2200 B.C.E.: Scenarios from Palestine and Egypt
Between about 2300 and 2000 B.C.E. there was widespread sociopolitical devolution in the Near East. Tell Leilan, the particular case in point, was abandoned after deposition of volcanic tephra.
The Neo-Hittite states in Syria and Anatolia
After c. 700, occasional references are found in classical authors to notable events in Anatolia and Syria. Since the chronological framework of the history of the Syro-Hittite states is dependent on
Historical water storage for irrigation in the Fayum depression (Egypt)
Investigations into the much-discussed question of a historical manmade water storage lake within the Fayum depression were carried out in spring 1988. The results of the research into the dam
Holocene Supra-Regional Environmental Changes as Trigger for Major Socio-Cultural Processes in Northeastern Africa and the Sahara
This contribution presents the environmental changes that occurred over the last ten millennia in a vast region of North Africa, encompassing the Central Sahara, the Greater Nile Valley and the Horn


The Egyptian Climate: An Historical Outline
Aglance at the map shows the Eastern Desert of Egypt as a dissected plateau draining to the river, while the Libyan Desert consists of a series of unconnected depressions varying much in depth. It
The Oldest Records of the Nile Floods
Because rainfall over all but the northern Delta has long been rare and irregular, Egyptian farmers have depended for at least some 5000 years upon the annual flood of the Nile River to water their
The Dark Ages in Ancient History. I. The First Dark Age in Egypt
  • B. Bell
  • History
    American Journal of Archaeology
  • 1971
In the history of the ancient Near East two striking Dark Ages have occurred. They occurred more or less simultaneously (within the limits of current dating accuracy) over a wide area extending at
The Art and Architecture of Ancient Egypt
Part 1 The prehistoric and early dynastic periods: predynastic Egypt (4000-3200 BC) dynasties I-II (3200-2780 BC). Part 2 The Old Kingdom: dynasty III (2780-2680 BC) dynasty IV (2680-2565 BC) dynasty
Climate Through the Ages
Lake Moeris and Lahun: the great Nile control project executed by the ancient Egyptians, Bull.Soc.Geogr.Egypt 33:i87
  • 1960
The Pyramids
  • 1969