Climate-Driven Ecosystem Succession in the Sahara: The Past 6000 Years

  title={Climate-Driven Ecosystem Succession in the Sahara: The Past 6000 Years},
  author={S. Kr{\"o}pelin and Dirk Verschuren and Anne-Marie L{\'e}zine and Hilde Eggermont and Christine Cocquyt and Pierre Francus and Jean-Pierre Cazet and Maureen Fagot and Bob Rumes and James M. Russell and Frank Darius and Daniel J. Conley and Mathieu Schuster and Hans von Suchodoletz and Daniel R. Engstrom},
  pages={765 - 768}
Desiccation of the Sahara since the middle Holocene has eradicated all but a few natural archives recording its transition from a “green Sahara” to the present hyperarid desert. Our continuous 6000-year paleoenvironmental reconstruction from northern Chad shows progressive drying of the regional terrestrial ecosystem in response to weakening insolation forcing of the African monsoon and abrupt hydrological change in the local aquatic ecosystem controlled by site-specific thresholds. Strong… 

A predominantly tropical influence on late Holocene hydroclimate variation in the hyperarid central Sahara

The climate history of the Sahara desert during recent millennia is obscured by the near absence of natural climate archives, hampering insight in the relative importance of southerly (tropical) and

Environmental changes, climate and anthropogenic impact in south-east Tunisia during the last 8 kyr

Abstract. Pollen and clay mineralogical analyses of a Holocene sequence from Sebkha Boujmel (southern Tunisia) trace the climatic and environmental dynamics in the lower arid bioclimatic zone over

Abrupt Shifts in Horn of Africa Hydroclimate Since the Last Glacial Maximum

Quick-Dry Region The Sahara Desert is one of the driest places on Earth. However, 11,000 to 5000 years ago, it was a relatively lush region containing savannah grasslands and humid tropical forests.

Did pastoralism delay the collapse of the green Sahara 6000 years ago?

During the early Holocene, northern Africa was relatively humid and supported a large human population. Around 5,500 years ago (5.5 ka) the regional climate deteriorated and the population declined

Holocene Hydroclimate Variability and Vegetation Response in the Ethiopian Highlands (Lake Dendi)

Northern Africa’s past climate is characterized by a prolonged humid period known as the African Humid Period (AHP), giving origin to the “Green Sahara” and supporting human settlements into areas

Green Sahara tipping points in transient climate model simulations of the Holocene

The ‘Greening’ and subsequent desertification of the Sahara during the early to mid-Holocene is a dramatic example of natural climate change. We analyse a suite of simulations with a newly

Late Holocene plant and climate evolution at Lake Yoa, northern Chad: pollen data and climate simulations

Abstract. The discovery of groundwater-fed Lake Yoa (19.03° N, 20.31° E) in the hyperarid desert of northern Chad by the German research team ACACIA headed by S. Kropelin provides a unique,



Simulation of an abrupt change in Saharan vegetation in the Mid‐Holocene

Climate variability during the present interglacial, the Holocene, has been rather smooth in comparison with the last glacial. Nevertheless, there were some rather abrupt climate changes. One of

Regime Shifts in the Sahara and Sahel: Interactions between Ecological and Climatic Systems in Northern Africa

The Sahara and Sahel regions of northern Africa have complex environmental histories punctuated by sudden and dramatic “regime shifts” in climate and ecological conditions. Here we review the current

The greening of the Sahara during the mid-Holocene: results of an interactive atmosphere-biome model

An asynchronously coupled atmospherebiome model was used to assess the biogeophysical interaction during the mid-Holocene, 6000 years before present. The model determines its own land surface

Climate-Controlled Holocene Occupation in the Sahara: Motor of Africa's Evolution

Radiocarbon data from 150 archaeological excavations in the now hyper-arid Eastern Sahara of Egypt, Sudan, Libya, and Chad reveal close links between climatic variations and prehistoric occupation

The Holocene Asian Monsoon: Links to Solar Changes and North Atlantic Climate

A 5-year-resolution absolute-dated oxygen isotope record from Dongge Cave, southern China, provides a continuous history of the Asian monsoon over the past 9000 years, and shows that some, but not all, of the monsoon variability at these frequencies results from changes in solar output.

Late Quaternary Climate and Vegetation of the Sudanian Zone of Northeast Nigeria

Abstract The Lake Tilla crater lake in northeastern Nigeria (10°23′N, 12°08′E) provides a ca. 17,000 14C yr multiproxy record of the environmental history of a Sudanian savanna in West Africa.

Southward Migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone Through the Holocene

The Cariaco Basin record exhibits strong correlations with climate records from distant regions, including the high-latitude Northern Hemisphere, providing evidence for global teleconnections among regional climates.

Holocene Forcing of the Indian Monsoon Recorded in a Stalagmite from Southern Oman

A high-resolution oxygen-isotope record from a thorium-uranium–dated stalagmite from southern Oman reflects variations in the amount of monsoon precipitation, indicating that early Holocene monsoon intensity is largely controlled by glacial boundary conditions.