Climate Change, Human Impacts, and the Resilience of Coral Reefs

  title={Climate Change, Human Impacts, and the Resilience of Coral Reefs},
  author={Terry P. Hughes and Andrew H. Baird and David R. Bellwood and Melvyn D. Card and Sean R. Connolly and Carl Folke and Richard K Grosberg and Ove Hoegh‐Guldberg and Jeremy B. C. Jackson and Joan Kleypas and Janice M. Lough and Paul A. Marshall and Magnus Nystr{\"o}m and Stephen R. Palumbi and John M. Pandolfi and Brian Roy Rosen and Jonathan Roughgarden},
  pages={929 - 933}
The diversity, frequency, and scale of human impacts on coral reefs are increasing to the extent that reefs are threatened globally. Projected increases in carbon dioxide and temperature over the next 50 years exceed the conditions under which coral reefs have flourished over the past half-million years. However, reefs will change rather than disappear entirely, with some species already showing far greater tolerance to climate change and coral bleaching than others. International integration… 
Vulnerability of Coral Reefs
The cumulative impacts of climate changes and existing human pressures, such as fishing, nutrient pollution, and coastal runoff, are threatening the biodiversity and ecosystem services provided by
Adapting Coral Reef Management in the Face of Climate Change
Climate change is now recognised as one of the most significant threats to coral reefs worldwide. The effects of increased sea temperatures on coral populations are the main cause for concern for the
Impact of Global Warming on Coral Reefs
In this paper, we review coral reef responses to climate variability and discuss the possible mechanisms by which climate impacts the coral reef ecosystem. Effects of oceanographic variables such as
Using the CCSM to Study Future Coral Reef Vulnerability to Temperature Change
Over the last few decades, several major ecosystems are proving to be vulnerable to future climate changes, elevating the need for combined ecological-climatological research. One obvious ecosystem
Rising to the challenge of sustaining coral reef resilience.
Learning how to avoid undesirable phase-shifts, and how to reverse them when they occur, requires an urgent reform of scientific approaches, policies, governance structures and coral reef management.
A clear human footprint on the Caribbean coral reefs
Q3 overfishing and climate change had acted independently and created different overwhelming responses among fishes, corals and macroalgae. While the effective implementation of marine protected
Coral reefs in the Anthropocene
The global challenge is to steer reefs through the Anthropocene era in a way that maintains their biological functions and will require radical changes in the science, management and governance of coral reefs.
Dynamic fragility of oceanic coral reef ecosystems.
It is shown that climate change-driven loss of live coral, and ultimately structural complexity, in the Seychelles results in local extinctions, substantial reductions in species richness, reduced taxonomic distinctness, and a loss of species within key functional groups of reef fish.
Vulnerability of fishes of the Great Barrier Reefto climate change
Climate change has already caused significant impacts to Earth’s ecosystems. Shifts in plant and animal biogeographic ranges125, changes to population abundance, adjustments in the timing of seasonal
The Impact of Climate Change on Coral Reef Ecosystems
Human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels, deforestation and changing land use have dramatically altered the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and


Global Trajectories of the Long-Term Decline of Coral Reef Ecosystems
Records are compiled, extending back thousands of years, of the status and trends of seven major guilds of carnivores, herbivores, and architectural species from 14 regions that indicate reefs will not survive without immediate protection from human exploitation over large spatial scales.
Coral reef disturbance and resilience in a human-dominated environment.
The role of disturbance for coral reef ecosystem dynamics is reconsidered, with implications for reef-associated human activities, such as fishing and tourism, which can be substantial.
Catastrophes, Phase Shifts, and Large-Scale Degradation of a Caribbean Coral Reef
  • T. Hughes
  • Environmental Science, Medicine
  • 1994
A dramatic phase shift has occurred in Jamaica, producing a system dominated by fleshy macroalgae (more than 90 percent cover), and immediate implementation of management procedures is necessary to avoid further catastrophic damage.
Regional-Scale Assembly Rules and Biodiversity of Coral Reefs
Tropical reef fishes and corals exhibit highly predictable patterns of taxonomic composition across the Indian and Pacific Oceans, but the composition of these key taxa is constrained within a remarkably narrow range of values.
Spatial Resilience of Coral Reefs
There have been several earlier studies that addressed the influence of natural disturbance regimes on coral reefs. Humans alter natural disturbance regimes, introduce new stressors, and modify
The future of coral reefs
  • N. Knowlton
  • Biology, Medicine
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2001
The fossil record suggests that corals as a group are more likely to suffer extinctions than some of the groups that associate with them, whose habitat requirements may be less stringent.
Ecosystems: Reef corals bleach to survive change
Results from transplant experiments involving different combinations of coral host and algal symbiont that support an alternative view, in which bleaching offers a high-risk ecological opportunity for reef corals to rid themselves rapidly of suboptimal algae and to acquire new partners.
Climate change, coral bleaching and the future of the world's coral reefs
The results suggest that the thermal tolerances of reef-building corals are likely to be exceeded every year within the next few decades, and suggests that unrestrained warming cannot occur without the loss and degradation of coral reefs on a global scale.
Geochemical consequences of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide on coral reefs
A coral reef represents the net accumulation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) produced by corals and other calcifying organisms. If calcification declines, then reef-building capacity also declines.
Historical Overfishing and the Recent Collapse of Coastal Ecosystems
Ecological extinction caused by overfishing precedes all other pervasive human disturbance to coastal ecosystems, including pollution, degradation of water quality, and anthropogenic climate change.