Clearance: The Last and Often Forgotten Stage of Apoptosis

  title={Clearance: The Last and Often Forgotten Stage of Apoptosis},
  author={Valerie Fadok},
  journal={Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia},
  • V. Fadok
  • Published 1 April 1999
  • Biology
  • Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Engulfment by a phagocyte is the final commonevent in the life of most apoptotic cells. Phagocytosisof apoptotic bodies prior to their lysis prevents therelease of potentially toxic or immunogenicintracellular contents and activates an anti-inflammatoryresponse, at least in macrophages. We are beginning tounderstand the mechanisms by which macrophages and otherphagocytes recognize apoptotic cells in vitro, but we are a long way from determining theirrelative importance in vivo. The involuting… 

Immunology of Apoptosis and Necrosis

A complex of reactions regulating the number of cells in organs and tissues under normal and pathologic conditions is one of the most important systems of multicellular organisms. In this system,

Identification of a factor that links apoptotic cells to phagocytes

Results indicate that milk fat globule-EGF-factor 8 secreted from activated macrophages binds to apoptotic cells, and brings them to phagocytes for engulfment.

Secondary necrosis in multicellular animals: an outcome of apoptosis with pathogenic implications

In vivo secondary necrosis occurs when massive apoptosis overwhelms the available scavenging capacity, or when the scavenger mechanism is directly impaired, and may result in leakage of the cell contents with induction of tissue injury and inflammatory and autoimmune responses.

Scrambled Eggs: Apoptotic Cell Clearance by Non-Professional Phagocytes in the Drosophila Ovary

Recent advances on the interplay between engulfment pathways in the follicular epithelium for cell clearance in the Drosophila ovary are discussed and compared to apoptotic cell clearance mechanisms in C. elegans and mammals are provided.

Macrophage chemotaxis to apoptotic cells

The work presented here investigates the chemoattractant molecules released by dying cells in the "Come-get-me" stage of apoptotic cell clearance, and demonstrates the first demonstration of the involvement of a known chemokine, CX3CL1 in the clearance of apoptosis.

Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells in mammals, caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster: molecular mechanisms and physiological consequences.

  • N. Franc
  • Biology
    Frontiers in bioscience : a journal and virtual library
  • 2002
The known molecular aspects of phagocytosis of apoptotic corpses in mammals, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster are reviewed from the point of view of the phagocyte and the apoptotic corpse.


The known molecular aspects of phagocytosis of apoptotic corpses in mammals, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster are reviewed from the point of view of the phagocyte and the apoptotic corpse.

Massive apoptosis of colonocytes induced by butyrate deprivation overloads resident macrophages and promotes the recruitment of circulating monocytes

Butyrate deprivation in vivo led to untimely death of colonocytes and triggered changes in the lamina propria indicative of an inflammatory response.

PPAR-δ senses and orchestrates clearance of apoptotic cells to promote tolerance

PPAR-δ has a pivotal role in orchestrating the timely disposal of apoptotic cells by macrophages, ensuring that tolerance to self is maintained.

Expulsion of Live Pathogenic Yeast by Macrophages




Recognition and phagocytosis of cells undergoing apoptosis.

A full understanding of this complexity will require definition of recognition mechanisms which operate in vivo in higher organisms as well as specific evidence in vitro for involvement of phagocyte receptors.

Vitronectin receptor-mediated phagocytosis of cells undergoing apoptosis

It is reported that macrophage recognition of apoptotic cells (both neutrophils and lymphocytes) is mediated by the vitronectin receptor, a heterodimer belonging to the β3 or cytoadhesin family of the integrins.

Human Kupffer cell recognition and phagocytosis of apoptotic peripheral blood lymphocytes.

Experiments indicate that the membranes of apoptotic peripheral blood lymphocytes express increased amounts of N-acetylgalactosamine, D-galactose, and mannose residues when compared with membranes of normal PBL, and support the idea that Kupffer cells phagocytose apoptotic cells by means of lectin-like receptors.

Human CD14 mediates recognition and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells

Results indicate that clearance of apoptotic cells is mediated by a receptor whose interactions with ‘non-self’ components (LPS) and ‘self” components (apoptotic cells) produce distinct macrophage responses.

Exposure of phosphatidylserine on the surface of apoptotic lymphocytes triggers specific recognition and removal by macrophages.

The data suggest that macrophages specifically recognize phosphatidylserine that is exposed on the surface of lymphocytes during the development of apoptosis, and suggest that apoptotic lymphocytes lose membrane phospholipid asymmetry and expose phosphorus on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane.

Apoptosis: A Basic Biological Phenomenon with Wide-ranging Implications in Tissue Kinetics

Apoptosis seems to be involved in cell turnover in many healthy adult tissues and is responsible for focal elimination of cells during normal embryonic development, and participates in at least some types of therapeutically induced tumour regression.

Apoptosis: mechanisms and roles in pathology.

Complement-dependent Clearance of Apoptotic Cells by Human Macrophages

In the presence of serum, the macrophage receptors for C3bi, CR3 and CR4, were significantly more efficient in the uptake of apoptotic cells compared with previously described receptors implicated in clearance.

Different populations of macrophages use either the vitronectin receptor or the phosphatidylserine receptor to recognize and remove apoptotic cells.

The results suggest that the mechanism by which apoptotic cells are recognized and phagocytosed by macrophages is determined by the subpopulation of macrophage studied.

Multiple systems for recognition of apoptotic lymphocytes by macrophages.

It is demonstrated here that bothactivated and unactivated macrophages recognize PS, but with different receptor systems, suggesting that PS exposure on the surface of apoptotic lymphocytes generates a complex and evolving signal recognized by different receptor complexes on activated and un activated macrophage.