Unconventional functions for clathrin, ESCRTs, and other endocytic regulators in the cytoskeleton, cell cycle, nucleus, and beyond: links to human disease.
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is a major pathway for the internalization of macromolecules into the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. The principle coat components, clathrin and the AP-2 adaptor complex, assemble a polyhedral lattice at plasma membrane bud sites with the aid of several endocytic accessory proteins. Here, we show that huntingtin-interacting protein 1 (HIP1), a binding partner of huntingtin, copurifies with brain clathrin-coated vesicles and associates directly with both AP-2 and clathrin. The discrete interaction sequences within HIP1 that facilitate binding are analogous to motifs present in other accessory proteins, including AP180, amphiphysin, and epsin. Bound to a phosphoinositide-containing membrane surface via an epsin N-terminal homology (ENTH) domain, HIP1 associates with AP-2 to provide coincident clathrin-binding sites that together efficiently recruit clathrin to the bilayer. Our data implicate HIP1 in endocytosis, and the similar modular architecture and function of HIP1, epsin, and AP180 suggest a common role in lipid-regulated clathrin lattice biogenesis.