Classroom Response Systems: A Review of the Literature

  title={Classroom Response Systems: A Review of the Literature},
  author={Carmen Fies and Jill A. Marshall},
  journal={Journal of Science Education and Technology},
  • C. Fies, J. Marshall
  • Published 1 March 2006
  • Psychology
  • Journal of Science Education and Technology
As the frequency with which Classroom Response Systems (CRSs) are used is increasing, it becomes more and more important to define the affordances and limitations of these tools. Currently existing literature is largely either anecdotal or focuses on comparing CRS and non-CRS environments that are unequal in other aspects as well. In addition, the literature primarily describes situations in which the CRS is used to provide an individual as opposed to a group response. This article points to… 

IT In the Classroom: Researching the Outcomes of Classroom Response Systems

A theoretical model based on TaskTechnology Fit and Kirkpatrick's four-level model of educational outcomes is proposed as a framework to organize the existing CRS technology research and study the impact of CRS technologies.

Enhancing the learning environment using classroom response systems

Classroom response systems (CRS) offer a management tool for engaging students in the classroom. These systems have been used in a variety of fields and at all levels of education. Typical goals of

The C3 Framework: Evaluating Classroom Response System Interactions in University Classrooms

The larger the classroom, the more likely is it that communications consist of a one-way flow from the instructor to students. Classroom Response Systems (CRSs) are frequently hailed as technologies

Making Classroom Response Systems More Social

This research aims to open the discussion for more social communication on courses and lessons on CRS-usage by providing grounding of social communication with CRS.

A strategic assessment of audience response systems used in higher education

A comprehensive review of teaching strategies used with ARS is offered and includes a discussion of general, motivational, assessment based, and learning based approaches.

Designing a Web-Based Classroom Response System

This paper presents a prototypical implementation of a classroom response system called PINGO (Peer Instruction for very large groups), which is offered to all instructors worldwide as a hosted service free of charge.

Use of audience response systems for summative assessment in large classes

The audience response system - technology that allows immediate compilation and display of a group's multiple choice input - is being shown effective in the classroom both in engaging students and

Examining the Use of Audience Response Systems in Secondary School Classrooms: A Formative Analysis.

To date, extensive research has been done on the use of au� dience Response Systems (aRSs) in colleges and universi� ties, but not in secondary schools. The purpose of this study was to conduct a

Application of Classroom Response Systems (CRS): Study to Measure Student Learning Outcome

Research findings show that students consider CRS can improve class dynamics in theoretical lectures and almost all students have agreed with the assertion that CRS is easy to use, although some of them have warned that recipients do not always record their responses.



Classroom Response and Communication Systems: Research Review and Theory

The research on classroom response system technology and the related pedagogy and more advanced, but related technologies are reviewed, particularly with regard to the popular use of these systems to enhance questioning and feedback.

Peer Instruction: Results from a Range of Classrooms

We surveyed Peer Instruction users worldwide to collect data on their experiences with the pedagogy. Force Concept Inventory pre- and post-test scores at a range of institutions show learning gains

Peer Instruction versus Class-wide Discussion in Large Classes: A comparison of two interaction methods in the wired classroom

Following concerns about the poor conceptual understanding shown by science students, two US research groups have been experimenting with the use of 'classroom communication systems' (CCSs) to

The use of classroom feedback systems to enable active learning in large engineering mechanics classes

Differences in students' responses to, and experiences of three different peer discussion sequences and the contribution of different feedback methods (ie computergenerated, peer-generated and tutor-provided) to learning are examined.

Experience with classroom feedback systems to enable Socratic dialogue in large engineering classes

Many studies have demonstrated that concept tests followed by immediate feedback and peer discussion improve students' understanding of difficult concepts in science and engineering. These effects

Restructuring the Classroom: Conditions for Productive Small Groups

Moving beyond the general question of effectiveness of small group learning, this conceptual review proposes conditions under which the use of small groups in classrooms can be productive. Included

Promoting active learning in large classes using a classroom communication system

An overview of an instructional strategy aimed at promoting active learning in introductory physics courses and a discussion of the types of questions that have found work well in generating group, and class-wide discussions of physics concepts.


Previous work has examined how new theoretical, methodological, and design frameworks for engaging classroom learning are provoked and supported by the highly interactive and group-centered

ASK-IT/A2L: Assessing student knowlede with instructional technology

The ASK-IT/Assessing-to-Learn (A2L) project is an attempt to bring a strategic approach to learning, instruction, and communication. ASK-IT/A2L seeks to integrate formative assessment and classroom

A Universal Learning Tool for Classrooms

Questions and answers are used commonly in instructions to provide immediate feedback and reinforcement that are key elements of active learning. However, in a normal class, not all students can be