Classifying Intersex in DSM-5: Critical Reflections on Gender Dysphoria

@article{Kraus2015ClassifyingII,
  title={Classifying Intersex in DSM-5: Critical Reflections on Gender Dysphoria},
  author={Cynthia Kraus},
  journal={Archives of Sexual Behavior},
  year={2015},
  volume={44},
  pages={1147-1163}
}
  • C. Kraus
  • Published 6 May 2015
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Archives of Sexual Behavior
The new diagnosis of Gender Dysphoria (GD) in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) defines intersex, renamed “Disorders of Sex Development” (DSD), as a specifier of GD. With this formulation, the status of intersex departs from prior editions, especially from the DSM-IV texts that defined intersex as an exclusion criterion for Gender Identity Disorder. Conversely, GD—with or without a DSD—can apply in the same… 

Commentary on Kraus’ (2015) “Classifying Intersex in DSM-5: Critical Reflections on Gender Dysphoria”

A recurrent issue in the more recent editions of the Diagnostic andStatisticalManualofMentalDisorders (DSM)oftheAmerican Psychiatric Association (APA) has been whether patientinitiated gender change

Diagnosis of Sexual Dysfunctions in Psychiatric Population: Lights and Shadows of DSM-5 Taxonomy of Sexual Disorders

TLDR
The aim of this chapter was to summarize and critically revise major changes and debates among this new edition of DSM, to correct and clarify previous debates in the field of sexual disorders.

Hierarchies of ‘Treatment’: The Influences of Comorbid Psychiatric Diagnoses on Individuals with Gender Dysphoria

TLDR
This work investigates the creation and consequences of a hierarchy of treatment that is created by conceiving of the trans phenomenon as a psychiatric disorder which prioritizes effective management of the non-GD diagnosis/es before validating the gender identity through both social and medical methods.

Gender Dysphoria in Adults.

TLDR
Treatment of GD in adults, although largely standardized, is likely to evolve in response to the increasing diversity of persons seeking treatment, demands for greater client autonomy, and improved understanding of the benefits and limitations of current treatment modalities.

Queering medicalized gender variance

Disorders or Differences of Sex Development? Views of Affected Individuals on DSD Terminology

TLDR
The data do not support the view that, in general, the term Disorders of Sex Development is insensitive to concerns of affected persons and that it should therefore be abandoned, and it is recommended that clinicians evaluate each patient’s preferences.

Intersex Studies: A Systematic Review of International Health Literature

TLDR
The piece discusses the tensions between institutional expert-centered work with a traditional clinical/medical lens and the arguments found in a range of other patient-centered, community group–centered, and theory-centered sources applying innovative perspectives onto key issues.

Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans, Intersex, and Queer Psychology

The second edition of this award-winning textbook provides an accessible and engaging introduction to the field of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, and queer psychology. Comprehensive

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 70 REFERENCES

The DSM Diagnostic Criteria for Gender Identity Disorder in Adolescents and Adults

TLDR
Comparing the strong resistance against sexuality related specifiers, and the relative difficulty assessing sexual orientation in individuals pursuing hormonal and surgical interventions to change physical sex characteristics, it should be investigated whether other potentially relevant specifiers are more appropriate.

The DSM Diagnostic Criteria for Gender Identity Disorder in Children

  • K. Zucker
  • Psychology
    Archives of sexual behavior
  • 2010
TLDR
It is concluded that the persistent desire to be of the other gender should be a necessary symptom for the diagnosis of Gender Identity Disorder in children in the DSM-III, DSM- III-R, and DSM-IV.

From Mental Disorder to Iatrogenic Hypogonadism: Dilemmas in Conceptualizing Gender Identity Variants as Psychiatric Conditions

TLDR
It is concluded that the decision on the categorization of GIVs cannot be achieved on a purely scientific basis, and that a consensus for a pragmatic compromise needs to be arrived at that accommodates both scientific considerations and the service needs of persons with GIV.

Minding the body: Situating gender identity diagnoses in the ICD-11

TLDR
The ICD-11 Working Group on the Classification of Sexual Disorders and Sexual Health believes it is now appropriate to abandon a psychopathological model of transgender people based on 1940s conceptualizations of sexual deviance and move towards a model more reflective of current scientific evidence and best practices.

Controversies in Gender Diagnoses.

TLDR
The work summarizes some of the published conclusions of the DSM-5 and ICD-11 revision processes regarding three particular controversies: stigma versus access to care; the retention of a child gender diagnosis; and the treatment of prepubescent transgender children.

Queer Diagnoses: Parallels and Contrasts in the History of Homosexuality, Gender Variance, and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual

TLDR
Critics of the existing GID diagnoses parallel and contrast with earlier historical events that led APA to remove homosexuality from the DSM in 1973, and the author recommends changes in the DSM-V and some internal and public actions that the American Psychiatric Association should take.

Sexual and Gender Diagnoses of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)

TLDR
An edited volume re-evaluating the sexual and gender disorders of the American Psychiatric Association’s (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) is prepared.

Should Disorders of Sex Development be an Exclusion Criterion for Gender Identity Disorder in DSM 5?

The DSM-IV-TR category of Gender Identity Disorder (GID; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) is limited to persons with typical somatosexual development who experience “strong and persistent

Variants of Gender Differentiation in Somatic Disorders of Sex Development: Recommendations for Version 7 of the World Professional Association for Transgender Health's Standards of Care

TLDR
The differences in phenomena, context of presentation, etiology, and treatment settings are so large that identical diagnoses and treatment approaches are not justified and may be detrimental to the individuals in need of care, although more systematic comparisons are needed for definitive conclusions.

Interim report of the DSM-IV Subcommittee on Gender Identity Disorders

This article summarizes the discussions and recommendations of the DSM-IV Subcommittee on Gender Identity Disorders, a subcommittee of the Child Psychiatry Work Group, regarding diagnostic issues.
...